Bio Taxon
SummaryIncluded librariesPackage variablesSynopsisDescriptionGeneral documentationMethods
Bio::Taxon - A node in a represented taxonomy
Package variables
No package variables defined.
Included modules
Scalar::Util qw ( blessed )
Bio::IdentifiableI Bio::Tree::Node
  use Bio::Taxon;
# Typically you will get a Taxon from a Bio::DB::Taxonomy object # but here is how you initialize one my $taxon = Bio::Taxon->new(-name => $name, -id => $id, -rank => $rank, -division => $div); # Get one from a database my $dbh = Bio::DB::Taxonomy->new(-source => 'flatfile', -directory=> '/tmp', -nodesfile=> '/path/to/nodes.dmp', -namesfile=> '/path/to/names.dmp'); my $human = $dbh->get_taxon(-name => 'Homo sapiens'); $human = $dbh->get_taxon(-taxonid => '9606'); print "id is ", $human->id, "\n"; # 9606 print "rank is ", $human->rank, "\n"; # species print "scientific name is ", $human->scientific_name, "\n"; # Homo sapiens print "division is ", $human->division, "\n"; # Primates my $mouse = $dbh->get_taxon(-name => 'Mus musculus'); # You can quickly make your own lineages with the list database my @ranks = qw(superkingdom class genus species); my @h_lineage = ('Eukaryota', 'Mammalia', 'Homo', 'Homo sapiens'); my $list_dbh = Bio::DB::Taxonomy->new(-source => 'list', -names => \@h_lineage, -ranks => \@ranks); $human = $list_dbh->get_taxon(-name => 'Homo sapiens'); my @names = $human->common_names; # @names is empty $human->common_names('woman'); @names = $human->common_names; # @names contains woman # You can switch to another database when you need more information my $entrez_dbh = Bio::DB::Taxonomy->new(-source => 'entrez'); $human->db_handle($entrez_dbh); @names = $human->common_names; # @names contains woman, human, man # Since Bio::Taxon implements Bio::Tree::NodeI, we have access to those # methods (and can manually create our own taxa and taxonomy without the use # of any database) my $homo = $human->ancestor; # Though be careful with each_Descendent - unless you add_Descendent() # yourself, you won't get an answer because unlike for ancestor(), Bio::Taxon # does not ask the database for the answer. You can ask the database yourself # using the same method: ($human) = $homo->db_handle->each_Descendent($homo); # We can also take advantage of Bio::Tree::Tree* methods: # a) some methods are available with just an empty tree object use Bio::Tree::Tree; my $tree_functions = Bio::Tree::Tree->new(); my @lineage = $tree_functions->get_lineage_nodes($human); my $lineage = $tree_functions->get_lineage_string($human); my $lca = $tree_functions->get_lca($human, $mouse); # b) for other methods, create a tree using your Taxon object my $tree = Bio::Tree::Tree->new(-node => $human); my @taxa = $tree->get_nodes; $homo = $tree->find_node(-rank => 'genus'); # Normally you can't get the lca of a list-database derived Taxon and an # entrez or flatfile-derived one because the two different databases might # have different roots and different numbers of ranks between the root and the # taxa of interest. To solve this, make a tree of the Taxon with the more # detailed lineage and splice out all the taxa that won't be in the lineage of # your other Taxon: my $entrez_mouse = $entrez_dbh->get_taxon(-name => 'Mus musculus'); my $list_human = $list_dbh->get_taxon(-name => 'Homo sapiens'); my $mouse_tree = Bio::Tree::Tree->new(-node => $entrez_mouse); $mouse_tree->splice(-keep_rank => \@ranks); $lca = $mouse_tree->get_lca($entrez_mouse, $list_human);
This is the next generation (for Bioperl) of representing Taxonomy
information. Previously all information was managed by a single
object called Bio::Species. This new implementation allows
representation of the intermediate nodes not just the species nodes
and can relate their connections.
No description
No description
Methods description
newcode    nextTop
 Title   : new
Usage : my $obj = Bio::Taxonomy::Node->new();
Function: Builds a new Bio::Taxonomy::Node object
Returns : an instance of Bio::Taxonomy::Node
Args : -dbh => a reference to a Bio::DB::Taxonomy object
[no default]
-name => a string representing the taxon name
(scientific name)
-id => human readable id - typically NCBI taxid
-ncbi_taxid => same as -id, but explicitly say that it is an
NCBI taxid
-rank => node rank (one of 'species', 'genus', etc)
-common_names => array ref of all common names
-division => 'Primates', 'Rodents', etc
-genetic_code => genetic code table number
-mito_genetic_code => mitochondrial genetic code table number
-create_date => date created in database
-update_date => date last updated in database
-pub_date => date published in database
 Title   : version
Usage : $taxon->version($newval)
Returns : value of version (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : authority
Usage : $taxon->authority($newval)
Returns : value of authority (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : namespace
Usage : $taxon->namespace($newval)
Returns : value of namespace (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : db_handle
Usage : $taxon->db_handle($newval)
Function: Get/Set Bio::DB::Taxonomy Handle
Returns : value of db_handle (a scalar) (Bio::DB::Taxonomy object)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar, optional) Bio::DB::Taxonomy object
Also see Bio::DB::Taxonomy
 Title   : rank
Usage : $taxon->rank($newval)
Function: Get/set rank of this Taxon, 'species', 'genus', 'order', etc...
Returns : value of rank (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : id
Usage : $taxon->id($newval)
Function: Get/Set id (NCBI Taxonomy ID in most cases); object_id() and
ncbi_taxid() are synonyms of this method.
Returns : id (a scalar)
Args : none to get, OR scalar to set
 Title   : ncbi_taxid
Usage : $taxon->ncbi_taxid($newval)
Function: Get/Set the NCBI Taxonomy ID; This actually sets the id() but only
returns an id when ncbi_taxid has been explictely set with this
Returns : id (a scalar)
Args : none to get, OR scalar to set
 Title   : parent_id
Usage : $taxon->parent_id()
Function: Get parent ID, (NCBI Taxonomy ID in most cases);
parent_taxon_id() is a synonym of this method.
Returns : value of parent_id (a scalar)
Args : none
Status : deprecated
 Title   : genetic_code
Usage : $taxon->genetic_code($newval)
Function: Get/set genetic code table
Returns : value of genetic_code (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : mitochondrial_genetic_code
Usage : $taxon->mitochondrial_genetic_code($newval)
Function: Get/set mitochondrial genetic code table
Returns : value of mitochondrial_genetic_code (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : create_date
Usage : $taxon->create_date($newval)
Function: Get/Set Date this node was created (in the database)
Returns : value of create_date (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : update_date
Usage : $taxon->update_date($newval)
Function: Get/Set Date this node was updated (in the database)
Returns : value of update_date (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : pub_date
Usage : $taxon->pub_date($newval)
Function: Get/Set Date this node was published (in the database)
Returns : value of pub_date (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : ancestor
Usage : my $ancestor_taxon = $taxon->ancestor()
Function: Retrieve the ancestor taxon. Normally the database is asked what the
ancestor is.
If you manually set the ancestor (or you make a Bio::Tree::Tree with this object as an argument to new()), the database (if any) will not be used for the purposes of this method. To restore normal database behaviour, call ancestor(undef) (which would remove this object from the tree), or request this taxon again as a new Taxon object from the database. Returns : Bio::Taxon Args : none
 Title   : get_Parent_Node
Function: Synonym of ancestor()
Status : deprecated
 Title   : get_Children_Nodes
Function: Synonym of each_Descendent()
Status : deprecated
  Title:    name
Usage: $taxon->name('scientific', 'Homo sapiens');
$taxon->name('common', 'human', 'man');
my @names = @{$taxon->name('common')};
Function: Get/set the names. node_name(), scientific_name() and common_names()
are shorthands to name('scientific'), name('scientific') and
name('common') respectively.
Returns: names (a array reference)
Args: Arg1 => the name_class. You can assign any text, but the words
'scientific' and 'common' have the special meaning, as
scientific name and common name, respectively. 'scientific' and
'division' are treated specially, allowing only the first value
in the Arg2 list to be set.
Arg2 .. => list of names
 Title   : node_name
Usage : $taxon->node_name($newval)
Function: Get/set the name of this taxon (node), typically the scientific name
of the taxon, eg. 'Primate' or 'Homo'; scientific_name() is a synonym
of this method.
Returns : value of node_name (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : common_names
Usage : $taxon->common_names($newval)
Function: Get/add the other names of this taxon, typically the genbank common
name and others, eg. 'Human' and 'man'. common_name() is a synonym
of this method.
Returns : array of names in list context, one of those names in scalar context
Args : on add, new list of names (scalars, optional)
 Title   : division
Usage : $taxon->division($newval)
Function: Get/set the division this taxon belongs to, eg. 'Primates' or
Returns : value of division (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
 Title   : remove_Descendent
Usage : $node->remove_Descedent($node_foo);
Function: Removes a specific node from being a Descendent of this node
Returns : nothing
Args : An array of Bio::Node::NodeI objects which have been previously
passed to the add_Descendent call of this object.
Methods code
sub new {
    my ($class, @args) = @_;
    my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@args);
    my ($name, $id, $objid, $rank, $div, $dbh, $ncbitaxid, $commonname,
        $commonnames, $gcode, $mitocode, $createdate, $updatedate, $pubdate,
        $parent_id) = $self->_rearrange([qw(NAME ID OBJECT_ID RANK DIVISION DBH
                                            NCBI_TAXID COMMON_NAME COMMON_NAMES
                                            GENETIC_CODE MITO_GENETIC_CODE
                                            CREATE_DATE UPDATE_DATE PUB_DATE
                                            PARENT_ID)], @args);
    if (defined $id && (defined $ncbitaxid && $ncbitaxid ne $id || defined $objid && $objid ne $id)) {
        $self->warn("Only provide one of -id, -object_id or -ncbi_taxid, using $id\n");
    elsif(!defined $id) { 
        $id = $objid || $ncbitaxid;
    defined $id && $self->id($id);
    $self->{_ncbi_tax_id_provided} = 1 if $ncbitaxid;
    defined $rank && $self->rank($rank);
    defined $name && $self->node_name($name);
    my @common_names;
    if ($commonnames) {
        $self->throw("-common_names takes only an array reference") unless $commonnames
            && ref($commonnames) eq 'ARRAY';
        @common_names = @{$commonnames};
    if ($commonname) {
        my %c_names = map { $_ => 1 } @common_names;
        unless (exists $c_names{$commonname}) {
            unshift(@common_names, $commonname);
    @common_names > 0 && $self->common_names(@common_names);
    defined $gcode      && $self->genetic_code($gcode);
    defined $mitocode   && $self->mitochondrial_genetic_code($mitocode);
    defined $createdate && $self->create_date($createdate);
    defined $updatedate && $self->update_date($updatedate);
    defined $pubdate    && $self->pub_date($pubdate);
    defined $div        && $self->division($div);
    defined $dbh        && $self->db_handle($dbh);
    # deprecated and will issue a warning when method called,
# eventually to be removed completely as option
defined $parent_id && $self->parent_id($parent_id); # some things want to freeze/thaw Bio::Species objects, but
# _root_cleanup_methods contains a CODE ref, delete it.
delete $self->{_root_cleanup_methods}; return $self;
sub version {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'version'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'version'};
sub authority {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'authority'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'authority'};
sub namespace {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'namespace'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'namespace'};
sub db_handle {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) {
        my $db = shift;
        if (! ref($db) || ! $db->isa('Bio::DB::Taxonomy')) {
            $self->throw("Must provide a valid Bio::DB::Taxonomy object to db_handle()");
        if (!$self->{'db_handle'} || ($self->{'db_handle'} && $self->{'db_handle'} ne $db)) {
            my $new_self = $self->_get_similar_taxon_from_db($self, $db);
            $self->_merge_taxa($new_self) if $new_self;
        # NB: The Bio::DB::Taxonomy modules access this data member directly
# to avoid calling this method and going infinite
$self->{'db_handle'} = $db; } return $self->{'db_handle'};
sub rank {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'rank'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'rank'};
sub id {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->SUPER::id(@_);

*object_id =\& id;
sub ncbi_taxid {
    my ($self, $id) = @_;
    if ($id) {
        $self->{_ncbi_tax_id_provided} = 1;
        return $self->SUPER::id($id);
    if ($self->{_ncbi_tax_id_provided}) {
        return $self->SUPER::id;
sub parent_id {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) {
        $self->warn("You can no longer set the parent_id - use ancestor() instead");
    my $ancestor = $self->ancestor() || return;
    return $ancestor->id;

*parent_taxon_id =\& parent_id;
sub genetic_code {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'genetic_code'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'genetic_code'};
sub mitochondrial_genetic_code {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'mitochondrial_genetic_code'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'mitochondrial_genetic_code'};
sub create_date {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'create_date'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'create_date'};
sub update_date {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'update_date'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'update_date'};
sub pub_date {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{'pub_date'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'pub_date'};
sub ancestor {
    my $self = shift;
    my $ancestor = $self->SUPER::ancestor(@_);
    if ($ancestor) {
        return $ancestor;
    my $dbh = $self->db_handle;
    #*** could avoid the db lookup if we knew our current id was definitely
# information from the db...
my $definitely_from_dbh = $self->_get_similar_taxon_from_db($self); return $dbh->ancestor($definitely_from_dbh);
sub get_Parent_Node {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->warn("get_Parent_Node is deprecated, use ancestor() instead");
    return $self->ancestor(@_);
sub get_Children_Nodes {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->warn("get_Children_Nodes is deprecated, use each_Descendent() instead");
    return $self->each_Descendent(@_);
sub name {
    my ($self, $name_class, @names) = @_;
    $self->throw('No name class specified') unless defined $name_class;
    if (@names) {
        if ($name_class =~ /scientific|division/i) {
            delete $self->{'_names_hash'}->{$name_class};
            @names = (shift(@names));
        push @{$self->{'_names_hash'}->{$name_class}}, @names;
    return $self->{'_names_hash'}->{$name_class} || return;
sub node_name {
    my $self = shift;
    my @v = @{$self->name('scientific', @_) || []};
    return pop @v;

*scientific_name =\& node_name;
sub common_names {
    my $self = shift;
    my @v = @{$self->name('common', @_) || []};
    return ( wantarray ) ? @v : pop @v;

*common_name =\& common_names;
sub division {
    my $self = shift;
    my @v = @{$self->name('division',@_) || []};
    return pop @v;

# get a node from the database that is like the supplied node
sub _get_similar_taxon_from_db {
    #*** not really happy with this having to be called so much; there must be
# a better way...
my ($self, $taxon, $db) = @_; $self->throw("Must supply a Bio::Taxon") unless ref($taxon) && $taxon->isa("Bio::Taxon"); ($self->id || $self->node_name) || return; $db ||= $self->db_handle || return; if (!blessed($db) || !$db->isa('Bio::DB::Taxonomy')) { $self->throw("DB handle is not a Bio::DB::Taxonomy: got $db in node ".$self->node_name) } my $db_taxon = $db->get_taxon(-taxonid => $taxon->id) if $taxon->id; unless ($db_taxon) { my @try_ids = $db->get_taxonids($taxon->node_name) if $taxon->node_name; my $own_rank = $taxon->rank || 'no rank'; foreach my $try_id (@try_ids) { my $try = $db->get_taxon(-taxonid => $try_id); my $try_rank = $try->rank || 'no rank'; if ($own_rank eq 'no rank' || $try_rank eq 'no rank' || $own_rank eq $try_rank) { $db_taxon = $try; last; } } } return $db_taxon; } # merge data from supplied Taxon into self
sub _merge_taxa {
    my ($self, $taxon) = @_;
    $self->throw("Must supply a Bio::Taxon object") unless ref($taxon) && $taxon->isa('Bio::Taxon');
    return if ($taxon eq $self);
    foreach my $attrib (qw(scientific_name version authority namespace genetic_code mitochondrial_genetic_code create_date update_date pub_date division id)) {
        my $own = $self->$attrib();
        my $his = $taxon->$attrib();
        if (!$own && $his) {
    my $own = $self->rank || 'no rank';
    my $his = $taxon->rank || 'no rank';
    if ($own eq 'no rank' && $his ne 'no rank') {
    my %own_cnames = map { $_ => 1 } $self->common_names;
    my %his_cnames = map { $_ => 1 } $taxon->common_names;
    foreach (keys %his_cnames) {
        unless (exists $own_cnames{$_}) {
    #*** haven't merged the other things in names() hash, could do above much easier with direct access to object data
sub remove_Descendent {
    # need to override this method from Bio::Tree::Node since it casually
# throws away nodes if they don't branch
my ($self,@nodes) = @_; my $c= 0; foreach my $n ( @nodes ) { if ($self->{'_desc'}->{$n->internal_id}) { $self->{_removing_descendent} = 1; $n->ancestor(undef); $self->{_removing_descendent} = 0; $self->{'_desc'}->{$n->internal_id}->ancestor(undef); delete $self->{'_desc'}->{$n->internal_id}; $c++; } } return $c; } 1;
General documentation
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with code and data examples if at all possible.
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the web:
AUTHOR - Sendu BalaTop
Jason Stajich, jason-at-bioperl-dot-org (original Bio::Taxonomy::Node)
Juguang Xiao,
Gabriel Valiente,
The rest of the documentation details each of the object methods.
Internal methods are usually preceded with a _
Bio::IdentifiableI interface Top
Also see Bio::IdentifiableI
Bio::Taxonomy::Node implementationTop
 Title   : each_Descendent
Usage : my @taxa = $taxon->each_Descendent();
Function: Get all the descendents for this Taxon (but not their descendents,
ie. not a recursive fetchall). get_Children_Nodes() is a synonym of
this method.
Note that this method never asks the database for the descendents; it will only return objects you have manually set with add_Descendent(), or where this was done for you by making a Bio::Tree::Tree with this object as an argument to new(). To get the database descendents use $taxon->db_handle->each_Descendent($taxon). Returns : Array of Bio::Taxon objects Args : optionally, when you have set your own descendents, the string "height", "creation", "alpha", "revalpha", or coderef to be used to sort the order of children nodes.