Bio::Ontology Ontology
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Summary
Bio::Ontology::Ontology - standard implementation of an Ontology
Package variables
No package variables defined.
Inherit
Bio::AnnotatableI Bio::Ontology::OntologyI Bio::Root::Root
Synopsis
    use Bio::Ontology::Ontology;
use Bio::Ontology::Term;
# create ontology object my $ont = Bio::Ontology::Ontology->new(-name => "OBF"); # add terms, relationships ... my $bp = Bio::Ontology::Term->new(-identifier => '02', -name => "Bioperl"); my $obf = Bio::Ontology::Term->new(-identifier => '01', -name => "OBF"); my $partof = Bio::Ontology::RelationshipType->get_instance("PART_OF"); $ont->add_term($bp); $ont->add_term($obf); $ont->add_relationship($bp, $obf, $partof); # then query my @terms = $ont->get_root_terms(); # "OBF" my @desc = $ont->get_descendant_terms($terms[0], $partof); # "Bioperl" # ... see methods for other ways to query # for advanced users, you can re-use the query engine outside of an # ontology to let one instance manage multiple ontologies my $ont2 = Bio::Ontology::Ontology->new(-name => "Foundations", -engine => $ont->engine());
Description
This is a no-frills implementation of Bio::Ontology::OntologyI.
The query functions are implemented by delegation to an
OntologyEngineI implementation.
Methods
newDescriptionCode
nameDescriptionCode
authorityDescriptionCode
definitionDescriptionCode
identifierDescriptionCode
closeDescriptionCode
engineDescriptionCode
add_termDescriptionCode
add_relationshipDescriptionCode
get_relationship_typeDescriptionCode
get_relationshipsDescriptionCode
get_predicate_termsDescriptionCode
get_child_termsDescriptionCode
get_descendant_termsDescriptionCode
get_parent_termsDescriptionCode
get_ancestor_termsDescriptionCode
get_leaf_termsDescriptionCode
get_root_termsDescriptionCode
get_all_termsDescriptionCode
find_termsDescriptionCode
find_identical_termsDescriptionCode
find_similar_termsDescriptionCode
find_identically_named_termsDescriptionCode
relationship_factoryDescriptionCode
term_factoryDescriptionCode
annotationDescriptionCode
Methods description
newcode    nextTop
 Title   : new
Usage : my $obj = Bio::Ontology::Ontology->new();
Function: Builds a new Bio::Ontology::Ontology object
Returns : an instance of Bio::Ontology::Ontology
Args : any number of named arguments. The following names will be
recognized by this module:
-name the name of the ontology -authority the name of the authority for the ontology -identifier an identifier for the ontology, if any -engine the Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineI implementation that this instance should use; default is Bio::Ontology::SimpleOntologyEngine See the corresponding get/set methods for further documentation on individual properties.
namecodeprevnextTop
 Title   : name
Usage : $obj->name($newval)
Function: Get/set the name of the ontology.
Example :
Returns : value of name (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
authoritycodeprevnextTop
 Title   : authority
Usage : $obj->authority($newval)
Function: Get/set the authority for this ontology, for instance the
DNS base for the organization granting the name of the
ontology and identifiers for the terms.
This attribute is optional and should not generally expected by applications to have been set. It is here to follow the rules for namespaces, which ontologies serve as for terms. Example : Returns : value of authority (a scalar) Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
definitioncodeprevnextTop
 Title   : definition
Usage : $obj->definition($newval)
Function: Get/set a descriptive definition of the ontology.
Example :
Returns : value of definition (a scalar)
Args : on set, new value (a scalar or undef, optional)
identifiercodeprevnextTop
 Title   : identifier
Usage : $id = $obj->identifier()
Function: Get an identifier for this ontology.
This is primarily intended for look-up purposes. The value is not modifiable and is determined automatically by the implementation. Also, the identifier's uniqueness will only hold within the scope of a particular application's run time since it is derived from a memory location. Example : Returns : value of identifier (a scalar) Args :
closecodeprevnextTop
 Title   : close
Usage :
Function: Release any resources this ontology may occupy. In order
to efficiently release unused memory or file handles, you
should call this method once you are finished with an
ontology.
Example : Returns : TRUE on success and FALSE otherwise Args : none
enginecodeprevnextTop
 Title   : engine
Usage : $engine = $obj->engine()
Function: Get/set the ontology engine to which all the query methods
delegate.
Example :
Returns : an object implementing Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineI
Args : on set, new value (an object implementing
Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineI, or undef)
See Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineI.
add_termcodeprevnextTop
 Title   : add_term
Usage : add_term(TermI term): TermI
Function: Adds TermI object to the ontology engine term store
If the ontology property of the term object was not set, this implementation will set it to itself upon adding the term. Example : $oe->add_term($term) Returns : its argument. Args : object of class TermI.
add_relationshipcodeprevnextTop
 Title   : add_relationship
Usage : add_relationship(RelationshipI relationship): RelationshipI
add_relatioship(TermI subject, TermI predicate, TermI object)
Function: Adds a relationship object to the ontology engine.
Example :
Returns : Its argument.
Args : A RelationshipI object.
get_relationship_typecodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_relationship_type
Usage : get_relationship_type(scalar): RelationshipTypeI
Function: Get a relationshiptype object from the ontology engine.
Example :
Returns : A RelationshipTypeI object.
Args : The name (scalar) of the RelationshipTypeI object desired.
get_relationshipscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_relationships
Usage : get_relationships(TermI term): RelationshipI[]
Function: Retrieves all relationship objects in the ontology, or all
relationships of a given term.
Example :
Returns : Array of Bio::Ontology::RelationshipI objects
Args : Optionally, a Bio::Ontology::TermI compliant object
get_predicate_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_predicate_terms
Usage : get_predicate_terms(): TermI
Function: Retrieves all relationship types.
Example :
Returns : Array of TermI objects
Args :
get_child_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_child_terms
Usage : get_child_terms(TermI term, TermI predicate_terms): TermI
Function: Retrieves all child terms of a given term, that satisfy a
relationship among those that are specified in the second
argument or undef otherwise. get_child_terms is a special
case of get_descendant_terms, limiting the search to the
direct descendants.
Note that a returned term may possibly be in another ontology than this one, because the underlying engine may manage multiple ontologies and the relationships of terms between them. If you only want descendants within this ontology, you need to filter the returned array. Example : Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args : First argument is the term of interest, second is the list of relationship type terms.
get_descendant_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_descendant_terms
Usage : get_descendant_terms(TermI term, TermI rel_types): TermI
Function: Retrieves all descendant terms of a given term, that
satisfy a relationship among those that are specified in
the second argument or undef otherwise.
Note that a returned term may possibly be in another ontology than this one, because the underlying engine may manage multiple ontologies and the relationships of terms between them. If you only want descendants within this ontology, you need to filter the returned array. Example : Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args : First argument is the term of interest, second is the list of relationship type terms.
get_parent_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_parent_terms
Usage : get_parent_terms(TermI term, TermI predicate_terms): TermI
Function: Retrieves all parent terms of a given term, that satisfy a
relationship among those that are specified in the second
argument or undef otherwise. get_parent_terms is a special
case of get_ancestor_terms, limiting the search to the
direct ancestors.
Note that a returned term may possibly be in another ontology than this one, because the underlying engine may manage multiple ontologies and the relationships of terms between them. If you only want descendants within this ontology, you need to filter the returned array. Example : Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args : First argument is the term of interest, second is the list of relationship type terms.
get_ancestor_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_ancestor_terms
Usage : get_ancestor_terms(TermI term, TermI predicate_terms): TermI
Function: Retrieves all ancestor terms of a given term, that satisfy
a relationship among those that are specified in the second
argument or undef otherwise.
Note that a returned term may possibly be in another ontology than this one, because the underlying engine may manage multiple ontologies and the relationships of terms between them. If you only want descendants within this ontology, you need to filter the returned array. Example : Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args : First argument is the term of interest, second is the list of relationship type terms.
get_leaf_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_leaf_terms
Usage : get_leaf_terms(): TermI
Function: Retrieves all leaf terms from the ontology. Leaf term is a
term w/o descendants.
Example : @leaf_terms = $obj->get_leaf_terms() Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args :
get_root_terms()codeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_root_terms
Usage : get_root_terms(): TermI
Function: Retrieves all root terms from the ontology. Root term is a
term w/o parents.
Example : @root_terms = $obj->get_root_terms() Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args :
get_all_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : get_all_terms
Usage : get_all_terms: TermI
Function: Retrieves all terms from the ontology.
We do not mandate an order here in which the terms are returned. In fact, the default implementation will return them in unpredictable order. Example : @terms = $obj->get_all_terms() Returns : Array of TermI objects. Args :
find_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : find_terms
Usage : ($term) = $oe->find_terms(-identifier => "SO:0000263");
Function: Find term instances matching queries for their attributes.
An implementation may not support querying for arbitrary attributes, but can generally be expected to accept -identifier and -name as queries. If both are provided, they are implicitly intersected. Example : Returns : an array of zero or more Bio::Ontology::TermI objects Args : Named parameters. The following parameters should be recognized by any implementations: -identifier query by the given identifier -name query by the given name
find_identical_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : find_identical_terms
Usage : ($term) = $oe->find_identical_terms($term0);
Function: Find term instances where name or synonym
matches the query exactly
Example :
Returns : an array of zero or more Bio::Ontology::TermI objects
Args : a Bio::Ontology::TermI object
find_similar_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : find_similar_terms
Usage : ($term) = $oe->find_similar_terms($term0);
Function: Find term instances where name or synonym, or part of one,
matches the query.
Example :
Returns : an array of zero or more Bio::Ontology::TermI objects
Args : a Bio::Ontology::TermI object
find_identically_named_termscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : find_identically_named_terms
Usage : ($term) = $oe->find_identically_named_terms($term0);
Function: Find term instances where names match the query term
name exactly
Example :
Returns : an array of zero or more Bio::Ontology::TermI objects
Args : a Bio::Ontology::TermI object
relationship_factorycodeprevnextTop
 Title   : relationship_factory
Usage : $fact = $obj->relationship_factory()
Function: Get (and set, if the engine supports it) the object
factory to be used when relationship objects are created by
the implementation on-the-fly.
Example : Returns : value of relationship_factory (a Bio::Factory::ObjectFactoryI compliant object) Args :
term_factorycodeprevnextTop
 Title   : term_factory
Usage : $fact = $obj->term_factory()
Function: Get (and set, if the engine supports it) the object
factory to be used when term objects are created by
the implementation on-the-fly.
Example : Returns : value of term_factory (a Bio::Factory::ObjectFactoryI compliant object) Args :
annotationcodeprevnextTop
 Title   : annotation
Usage : $annos = $obj->annotation()
Function: Get/Set the Bio::Annotation::Collection object
The collection contains Bio::Annotation::SimpleValue
objects to store header information like the version
and date present in the header section of an Ontology
file.
Example : Returns : value of annotation (a Bio::Annotation::Collection compliant object) Args : A Bio::Annotation::Collection object (Optional)
Methods code
newdescriptionprevnextTop
sub new {
  my($class,@args) = @_;

  my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@args);
  my ($name,$auth,$def,$id,$engine) =
        $self->_rearrange([qw(NAME
                          AUTHORITY
                          DEFINITION
                          IDENTIFIER
                          ENGINE)
                      ],
                      @args);
  defined($name) && $self->name($name);
  defined($auth) && $self->authority($auth);
  defined($def) && $self->definition($def);
  defined($id) && $self->identifier($id);
  defined($engine) && $self->engine($engine);

  return $self;
}
namedescriptionprevnextTop
sub name {
    my $self = shift;

    return $self->{'name'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'name'};
}
authoritydescriptionprevnextTop
sub authority {
    my $self = shift;

    return $self->{'authority'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'authority'};
}
definitiondescriptionprevnextTop
sub definition {
    my $self = shift;

    return $self->{'definition'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'definition'};
}
identifierdescriptionprevnextTop
sub identifier {
    my $self = shift;

    if(@_) {
        $self->throw("cannot modify identifier for ".ref($self))
            if exists($self->{'identifier'});
        my $id = shift;
        $self->{'identifier'} = $id if $id;
    }
    if(! exists($self->{'identifier'})) {
        ($self->{'identifier'}) = "$self" =~ /(0x[0-9a-fA-F]+)/;
    }
    return $self->{'identifier'};
}
closedescriptionprevnextTop
sub close {
    my $self = shift;

    # if it is in the ontology store, remove it from there
my $store = Bio::Ontology::OntologyStore->get_instance(); $store->remove_ontology($self); # essentially we need to dis-associate from the engine here
$self->engine(undef); return 1;
}
enginedescriptionprevnextTop
sub engine {
    my $self = shift;

    if (@_) {
        my $engine = shift;
        if($engine &&
           (! (ref($engine) &&
               $engine->isa("Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineI")))) {
            $self->throw("object of class ".ref($engine)." does not implement".
                         " Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineI. Bummer!");
        }
        $self->{'engine'} = $engine;
    } elsif (! exists($self->{'engine'})) {
        # instantiate on demand
eval { # this introduces a dependency on Graph.pm, so load dynamically
require Bio::Ontology::SimpleOntologyEngine; }; if ($@) { $self->throw("failed to load SimpleOntologyEngine, possibly " ."Graph.pm is not installed; either install or supply " ."another OntologyEngineI implementation:\n" .$@); } $self->{'engine'} = Bio::Ontology::SimpleOntologyEngine->new(); } return $self->{'engine'};
}
add_termdescriptionprevnextTop
sub add_term {
    my $self = shift;
    my $term = shift;

    # set ontology if not set already
$term->ontology($self) if $term && (! $term->ontology()); return $self->engine->add_term($term,@_);
}
add_relationshipdescriptionprevnextTop
sub add_relationship {
  my $self = shift;
  my $rel = shift;

  if($rel && $rel->isa("Bio::Ontology::TermI")) {
    # we need to construct the relationship object on the fly
my ($predicate,$object) = @_; $rel = Bio::Ontology::Relationship->new( -subject_term => $rel, -object_term => $object, -predicate_term => $predicate, -ontology => $self, ); } # set ontology if not set already
$rel->ontology($self) unless $rel->ontology(); return $self->engine->add_relationship($rel);
}
get_relationship_typedescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_relationship_type {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->engine->get_relationship_type(@_);
}
get_relationshipsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_relationships {
  my $self = shift;
  my $term = shift;
  if($term) {
        # we don't need to filter in this case
return $self->engine->get_relationships($term); } # else we need to filter by ontology
return grep { my $ont = $_->ontology; # the first condition is a superset of the second, but
# we add it here for efficiency reasons, as many times
# it will short-cut to true and is supposedly faster than
# string comparison
($ont == $self) || ($ont->name eq $self->name); } $self->engine->get_relationships(@_);
}
get_predicate_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_predicate_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    
    # skipped Bio::Ontology::Relationship w/o defined Ontology (bug 2573)
return grep { $_->ontology && ($_->ontology->name eq $self->name) } $self->engine->get_predicate_terms(@_);
}
get_child_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_child_terms {
    return shift->engine->get_child_terms(@_);
}
get_descendant_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_descendant_terms {
    return shift->engine->get_descendant_terms(@_);
}
get_parent_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_parent_terms {
    return shift->engine->get_parent_terms(@_);
}
get_ancestor_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_ancestor_terms {
    return shift->engine->get_ancestor_terms(@_);
}
get_leaf_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_leaf_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { my $ont = $_->ontology;
                  # the first condition is a superset of the second, but
# we add it here for efficiency reasons, as many times
# it will short-cut to true and is supposedly faster than
# string comparison
($ont == $self) || ($ont->name eq $self->name); } $self->engine->get_leaf_terms(@_);
}
get_root_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_root_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { my $ont = $_->ontology;
                  # the first condition is a superset of the second, but
# we add it here for efficiency reasons, as many times
# it will short-cut to true and is supposedly faster than
# string comparison
($ont == $self) || ($ont->name eq $self->name); } $self->engine->get_root_terms(@_);
}
get_all_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub get_all_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { my $ont = $_->ontology;
                  # the first condition is a superset of the second, but
# we add it here for efficiency reasons, as many times
# it will short-cut to true and is supposedly faster than
# string comparison
($ont == $self) || ($ont->name eq $self->name); } $self->engine->get_all_terms(@_);
}
find_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub find_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { $_->ontology->name eq $self->name;
              } $self->engine->find_terms(@_);
}
find_identical_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub find_identical_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { $_->ontology->name eq $self->name;
              } $self->engine->find_identical_terms(@_);
}
find_similar_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub find_similar_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { $_->ontology->name eq $self->name;
              } $self->engine->find_similar_terms(@_);
}
find_identically_named_termsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub find_identically_named_terms {
    my $self = shift;
    return grep { $_->ontology->name eq $self->name
              } $self->engine->find_identically_named_terms(@_);
}
relationship_factorydescriptionprevnextTop
sub relationship_factory {
    return shift->engine->relationship_factory(@_);
}
term_factorydescriptionprevnextTop
sub term_factory {
    return shift->engine->term_factory(@_);
}
annotationdescriptionprevnextTop
sub annotation {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{'annotation'} = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'annotation'};
}


#################################################################
# aliases
#################################################################
*get_relationship_types =\& get_predicate_terms; 1;
}
General documentation
FEEDBACKTop
Mailing ListsTop
User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other
Bioperl modules. Send your comments and suggestions preferably to
the Bioperl mailing list. Your participation is much appreciated.
  bioperl-l@bioperl.org                  - General discussion
http://bioperl.org/wiki/Mailing_lists - About the mailing lists
Support Top
Please direct usage questions or support issues to the mailing list:
bioperl-l@bioperl.org
rather than to the module maintainer directly. Many experienced and
reponsive experts will be able look at the problem and quickly
address it. Please include a thorough description of the problem
with code and data examples if at all possible.
Reporting BugsTop
Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track
of the bugs and their resolution. Bug reports can be submitted via
the web:
  https://redmine.open-bio.org/projects/bioperl/
AUTHOR - Hilmar LappTop
Email hlapp at gmx.net
APPENDIXTop
The rest of the documentation details each of the object methods.
Internal methods are usually preceded with a _
Methods from Bio::Ontology::OntologyITop
Implementation-specific public methodsTop
Methods defined in Bio::Ontology::OntologyEngineITop
Factory for relationships and termsTop