Bio::SeqIO chadoxml
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Summary
Bio::SeqIO::chadoxml - chadoxml sequence output stream
Package variables
Privates (from "my" definitions)
%fkey = ( "cvterm.cv_id" => "cv", "cvterm.dbxref_id" => "dbxref", "dbxref.db_id" => "db", "feature.type_id" => "cvterm", "feature.organism_id" => "organism", "feature.dbxref_id" => "dbxref", "featureprop.type_id" => "cvterm", "feature_pub.pub_id" => "pub", "feature_cvterm.cvterm_id" => "cvterm", "feature_cvterm.pub_id" => "pub", "feature_cvterm.feature_id" => "feature", "feature_dbxref.dbxref_id" => "dbxref", "feature_relationship.object_id" => "feature", "feature_relationship.subject_id" => "feature", "feature_relationship.type_id" => "cvterm", "featureloc.srcfeature_id" => "feature", "pub.type_id" => "cvterm", "pub_dbxref.dbxref_id" => "dbxref", "pub_author.author_id" => "author", "pub_relationship.obj_pub_id" => "pub", "pub_relationship.subj_pub_id" => "pub", "pub_relationship.type_id" => "cvterm", "pubprop.type_id" => "cvterm", "feature_synonym.feature_id" => "feature", "feature_synonym.synonym_id" => "synonym", "feature_synonym.pub_id" => "pub", "synonym.type_id" => "cvterm",)
%feattype_args2so = ( "aberr" => "aberration_junction", "variation" => "sequence_variant", "mutation1" => "point_mutation", "mutation2" => "sequence_variant", "rescue" => "rescue_fragment", "protein_bind" => "protein_binding_site", "misc_feature" => "region", "CDS" => "polypeptide", "reg_element" => "regulatory_region", "seq_variant" => "sequence_variant", "mat_peptide" => "mature_peptide", "sig_peptide" => "signal_peptide",)
$chadotables = 'feature featureprop feature_relationship featureloc feature_cvterm cvterm cv feature_pub pub pub_dbxref pub_author author pub_relationship pubprop feature_dbxref dbxref db synonym feature_synonym'
%cv_name = ( 'relationship' => 'relationship', 'sequence' => 'sequence', 'feature_property' => 'feature_property',)
Included modules
Bio::Annotation::Collection
Bio::Annotation::Comment
Bio::Annotation::DBLink
Bio::Annotation::Reference
Bio::Factory::SequenceStreamI
Bio::Seq
Bio::Seq::RichSeq
Bio::Seq::SeqFactory
Bio::SeqFeature::Generic
Bio::SeqFeature::Tools::Unflattener
Bio::SeqIO::FTHelper
Bio::Species
Carp
Data::Dumper
English
IO::File
IO::Handle
XML::Writer
Inherit
Bio::SeqIO
Synopsis
It is probably best not to use this object directly, but
rather go through the SeqIO handler system:
    $writer = Bio::SeqIO->new(-file => ">chado.xml",
-format => 'chadoxml');
# assume you already have Sequence or SeqFeature objects $writer->write_seq($seq_obj); #after writing all seqs $writer->close_chadoxml();
Description
This object can transform Bio::Seq objects to chadoxml flat
file databases (for chadoxml DTD, see
http://gmod.cvs.sourceforge.net/gmod/schema/chado/dat/chado.dtd).
This is currently a write-only module.
    $seqio = Bio::SeqIO->new(-file => '>outfile.xml',
-format => 'chadoxml'
-suppress_residues => 1,
-allow_residues => 'chromosome',
);
# we have a Bio::Seq object $seq which is a gene located on # chromosome arm 'X', to be written out to chadoxml # before converting to chadoxml, $seq object must be transformed
# so that all the coordinates in $seq are against the source
# feature to be passed into Bio::SeqIO::chadoxml->write_seq()
# -- chromosome arm X in the example below.
$seqio->write_seq(-seq=>$seq, -genus => 'Homo', -species => 'sapiens', -seq_so_type=>'gene', -src_feature=>'X', -src_feat_type=>'chromosome_arm', -nounflatten=>1, -is_analysis=>'true', -data_source=>'GenBank');
The chadoxml output of Bio::SeqIO::chadoxml->write_seq() method can be
passed to the loader utility in XORT package
(http://gmod.cvs.sourceforge.net/gmod/schema/XMLTools/XORT/) to be loaded into chado.
This object is currently implemented to work with sequence and
annotation data from whole genome projects deposited in GenBank. It
may not be able to handle all different types of data from all
different sources.
In converting a Bio::Seq object into chadoxml, a top-level feature is
created to represent the object and all sequence features inside the
Bio::Seq object are treated as subfeatures of the top-level
feature. The Bio::SeqIO::chadoxml object calls
Bio::SeqFeature::Tools::Unflattener to unflatten the flat feature list
contained in the subject Bio::Seq object, to build gene model
containment hierarchy conforming to chado central dogma model: gene
--> mRNA --> exons and protein.
Destination of data in the subject Bio::Seq object $seq is as following:
    *$seq->display_id:  name of the top-level feature;
*$seq->accession_number: if defined, uniquename and feature_dbxref of the top-level feature if not defined, $seq->display_id is used as the uniquename of the top-level feature; *$seq->molecule: transformed to SO type, used as the feature type of the top-level feature if -seq_so_type argument is supplied, use the supplied SO type as the feature type of the top-level feature; *$seq->species: organism of the top-level feature; *$seq->seq: residues of the top-level feature; *$seq->is_circular, $seq->division: feature_cvterm; *$seq->keywords, $seq->desc, comments: featureprop; *references: pub and feature_pub; medline/pubmed ids: pub_dbxref; comments: pubprop; *feature "source" span: featureloc for top-level feature; *feature "source" db_xref: feature_dbxref for top-level feature; *feature "source" other tags: featureprop for top-level feature; *subfeature 'symbol' or 'label' tag: feature uniquename, if none of these is present, the chadoxml object generates feature uniquenames as: -- (e.g. foo-mRNA--1000..3000); *gene model: feature_relationship built based on the containment hierarchy; *feature span: featureloc; *feature accession numbers: feature_dbxref; *feature tags (except db_xref, symbol and gene): featureprop;
Things to watch out for:
    *chado schema change: this version works with the chado
version tagged chado_1_01 in GMOD CVS.
*feature uniquenames: especially important if using XORT loader to do incremental load into chado. may need pre-processing of the source data to put the correct uniquenames in place. *pub uniquenames: chadoxml->write_seq() has the FlyBase policy on pub uniquenames hard-coded, it assigns pub uniquenames in the following way: for journals and books, use ISBN number; for published papers, use MEDLINE ID; for everything else, use FlyBase unique identifier FBrf#. need to modify the code to implement your policy. look for the comments in the code. *for pubs possibly existing in chado but with no knowledge of its uniquename:put "op" as "match", then need to run the output chadoxml through a special filter that talks to chado database and tries to find the pub by matching with the provided information instead of looking up by the unique key. after matching, the filter also resets the "match" operation to either "force" (default), or "lookup", or "insert", or "update". the "match" operation is for a special FlyBase use case. please modify to work according to your rules. *chado initialization for loading: cv & cvterm: in the output chadoxml, all cv's and cvterm's are lookup only. Therefore, before using XORT loader to load the output into chado, chado must be pre-loaded with all necessary CVs and CVterms, including "SO" , "property type", "relationship type", "pub type", "pubprop type", "pub relationship type", "sequence topology", "GenBank feature qualifier", "GenBank division". A pub by the uniquename 'nullpub' of type 'null pub' needs to be inserted.
Methods
_initialize
No description
Code
write_seqDescriptionCode
_hash2xml
No description
Code
_guess_acc_db
No description
Code
_subfeat2featrelhash
No description
Code
_genFeatUniqueName
No description
Code
_getRefAuthors
No description
Code
_getSubmitYear
No description
Code
_getSubmitAddr
No description
Code
suppress_residuesDescriptionCode
allow_residuesDescriptionCode
return_ftype_hashDescriptionCode
return_reltypenameDescriptionCode
next_seqDescriptionCode
_create_writerDescriptionCode
close_chadoxmlDescriptionCode
handle_unreserved_tagsDescriptionCode
handle_Alias_tagDescriptionCode
handle_Ontology_tagDescriptionCode
handle_dbxrefDescriptionCode
handle_sourceDescriptionCode
_srcf_hashDescriptionCode
Methods description
write_seqcode    nextTop
 Title   : write_seq
Usage : $stream->write_seq(-seq=>$seq, -seq_so_type=>$seqSOtype,
-src_feature=>$srcfeature,
-src_feat_type=>$srcfeattype,
-nounflatten=>0 or 1,
-is_analysis=>'true' or 'false',
-data_source=>$datasource)
Function: writes the $seq object (must be seq) into chadoxml.
Returns : 1 for success and 0 for error
Args : A Bio::Seq object $seq, optional $seqSOtype, $srcfeature,
$srcfeattype, $nounflatten, $is_analysis and $data_source.
When $srcfeature (a string, the uniquename of the source feature) is given, the
location and strand information of the top-level feature against the source
feature will be derived from the sequence feature called 'source' of the $seq
object, a featureloc record is generated for the top -level feature on
$srcfeature. when $srcfeature is given, $srcfeattype must also be present. All
feature coordinates in $seq should be against $srcfeature. $seqSOtype is the
optional SO term to use as the type of the top-level feature. For example, a
GenBank data file for a Drosophila melanogaster genome scaffold has the molecule
type of "DNA", when converting to chadoxml, a $seqSOtype argument of
"golden_path_region" can be supplied to save the scaffold as a feature of type
"golden_path_region" in chadoxml, instead of "DNA". a feature with primary tag
of 'source' must be present in the sequence feature list of $seq, to decribe the
whole sequence record.
In the current implementation:
   *(1)
   non-mRNA records
   A top-level feature of type $seq->alphabet is generated for the whole GenBank
record, features listed are unflattened for DNA records to build gene model
feature graph, and for the other types of records all features in $seq are
treated as subfeatures of the top-level feature.
   *(2)
   mRNA records
   If a 'gene' feature is present, it must have a /symbol or /label tag to
contain the uniquename of the gene. a top-level feature of type 'gene' is
generated. the mRNA is written as a subfeature of the top-level gene feature,
and the other sequence features listed in $seq are treated as subfeatures of the
mRNA feature.
suppress_residuescodeprevnextTop
 Title    : suppress_residues
Usage : $obj->suppress_residues() #get existing value
$obj->suppress_residues($newval) #set new value
Function : Keep track of the flag to suppress printing of residues in the
chadoxml file. The default it to allow all residues to go into the
file.
Returns : value of suppress_residues (a scalar)
Args : new value of suppress_residues (to set)
allow_residuescodeprevnextTop
 Title    : allow_residues
Usage : $obj->allow_residues() #get existing value
$obj->allow_residues($feature_type) #set new value
Function : Track the allow_residues type. This can be used in conjunction
with the suppress_residues flag to only allow residues from a
specific feature type to be printed in the xml file, for example,
only printing chromosome residues. When suppress_residues is set to
true, then only chromosome features would would go into the xml
file. If suppress_residues is not set, this function has no effect
(since the default is to put all residues in the xml file).
Returns : value of allow_residues (string that corresponds to a feature type)
Args : new value of allow_residues (to set)
Status :
return_ftype_hashcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : return_ftype_hash
Usage : $obj->return_ftype_hash()
Function : A simple hash where returning it has be factored out of the main
code to allow subclasses to override it.
Returns : A hash that indicates what the name of the SO term is and what
the name of the Sequence Ontology is in the cv table.
Args : The string that represents the SO term.
Status :
return_reltypenamecodeprevnextTop
 Title    : return_reltypename
Usage : $obj->return_reltypename
Function : Return the appropriate relationship type name depending on the
feature type (typically part_of, but derives_from for polypeptide).
Returns : A relationship type name.
Args : A SO type name.
Status :
next_seqcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : next_seq
Usage : $obj->next_seq
Function :
Returns :
Args :
Status : Not implemented (write only adaptor)
_create_writercodeprevnextTop
 Title    : _create_writer
Usage : $obj->_create_writer
Function : Creates XML::Writer object and writes start tag
Returns : Nothing, though the writer persists as part of the chadoxml object
Args : None
Status :
close_chadoxmlcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : close_chadoxml
Usage : $obj->close_chadoxml
Function : Writes the closing xml tag
Returns : None
Args : None
Status :
handle_unreserved_tagscodeprevnextTop
 Title    : handle_unreserved_tags
Usage : $obj->handle_unreserved_tags
Function : Converts tag value pairs to xml-ready hashrefs
Returns : The array containing the hashrefs
Args : In order: the Seq or SeqFeature object, the key, and the hasharray
Status :
handle_Alias_tagcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : handle_Alias_tag
Usage : $obj->handle_Alias_tag
Function : Convert Alias values to synonym hash refs
Returns : An array of synonym hash tags
Args : The seq or seqFeature object and the synonym hash array
Status :
handle_Ontology_tagcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : handle_Ontology_tag
Usage : $obj->handle_Ontology_tag
Function : Convert Ontology_term values to ontology term hash refs
Returns : An array of ontology term hash refs
Args : The seq or seqFeature object and the ontology term array
Status :
handle_dbxrefcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : handle_dbxref
Usage : $obj->handle_dbxref
Function : Convert Dbxref values to dbxref hashref
Returns : An array of dbxref hashrefs
Args : A seq or seqFeature object and the dbxref array
Status :
handle_sourcecodeprevnextTop
 Title    : handle_source
Usage : $obj->handle_source
Function :
Returns :
Args :
Status :
_srcf_hashcodeprevnextTop
 Title    : _srcf_hash
Usage : $obj->_srcf_hash
Function : Creates the srcfeature hash for use in featureloc hashes
Returns : The srcfeature hash
Args : The srcfeature name, the srcfeature type and a reference to the
organism hash.
Status :
Methods code
_initializedescriptionprevnextTop
sub _initialize {
    my($self,%args) = @_;

    $self->SUPER::_initialize(%args);
    unless( defined $self->sequence_factory ) {
        $self->sequence_factory(Bio::Seq::SeqFactory->new
                                (-verbose => $self->verbose(),
                                 -type => 'Bio::Seq::RichSeq'));
    }
    #optional arguments that can be passed in
$self->suppress_residues($args{'-suppress_residues'}) if defined $args{'-suppress_residues'}; $self->allow_residues($args{'-allow_residues'}) if defined $args{'-allow_residues'}; return;
}
write_seqdescriptionprevnextTop
sub write_seq {
    my $usage = <<EOUSAGE;
Bio::SeqIO::chadoxml->write_seq()
Usage : \$stream->write_seq(-seq=>\$seq,
-seq_so_type=>\$SOtype,
-src_feature=>\$srcfeature,
-src_feat_type=>\$srcfeattype,
-nounflatten=>0 or 1,
-is_analysis=>'true' or 'false',
-data_source=>\$datasource)
Args : \$seq : a Bio::Seq object
\$SOtype : the SO term to use as the feature type of
the \$seq record, optional
\$srcfeature : unique name of the source feature, a string
containing at least one alphabetical letter
(a-z, A-Z), optional
\$srcfeattype : feature type of \$srcfeature. one of SO terms.
optional
when \$srcfeature is given, \$srcfeattype becomes mandatory,
\$datasource : source of the sequence annotation data,
e.g. 'GenBank' or 'GFF'.
EOUSAGE
my ($self,@args) = @_; my ($seq, $seq_so_type, $srcfeature, $srcfeattype, $nounflatten, $isanalysis, $datasource, $genus, $species) = $self->_rearrange([qw(SEQ SEQ_SO_TYPE SRC_FEATURE SRC_FEAT_TYPE NOUNFLATTEN IS_ANALYSIS DATA_SOURCE GENUS SPECIES )], @args); #print "$seq_so_type, $srcfeature, $srcfeattype\n";
if( !defined $seq ) { $self->throw("Attempting to write with no seq!"); } if( ! ref $seq || ! $seq->isa('Bio::Seq::RichSeqI') ) { ## FIXME $self->warn(" $seq is not a RichSeqI compliant module. Attempting to dump, but may fail!");
} # try to get the srcfeature from the seqFeature object
# for this to work, the user has to pass in the srcfeature type
if (!$srcfeature) { if ($seq->can('seq_id')) { $srcfeature=$seq->seq_id if ($seq->seq_id ne $seq->display_name); } } #$srcfeature, when provided, should contain at least one alphabetical letter
if (defined $srcfeature) { if ($srcfeature =~ /[a-zA-Z]/) { chomp($srcfeature); } else { $self->throw( $usage ); } #check for mandatory $srcfeattype
if (! defined $srcfeattype) { $self->throw( $usage ); #$srcfeattype must be a string of non-whitespace characters
} else { if ($srcfeattype =~ /\S+/) { chomp($srcfeattype); } else { $self->throw( $usage ); } } } # variables local to write_seq()
my $div = undef; my $hkey = undef; undef(my @top_featureprops); undef(my @featuresyns); undef(my @top_featurecvterms); my $name = $seq->display_id if $seq->can('display_id'); $name = $seq->display_name if $seq->can('display_name'); undef(my @feature_cvterms); undef(my %sthash); undef(my %dvhash); undef(my %h1); undef(my %h2); my $temp = undef; my $ann = undef; undef(my @references); undef(my @feature_pubs); my $ref = undef; my $location = undef; my $fbrf = undef; my $journal = undef; my $issue = undef; my $volume = undef; my $volumeissue = undef; my $pages = undef; my $year = undef; my $pubtype = undef; # my $miniref= undef;
my $uniquename = undef; my $refhash = undef; my $feat = undef; my $tag = undef; my $tag_cv = undef; my $ftype = undef; my $subfeatcnt = undef; undef(my @top_featrels); undef (my %srcfhash); local($^W) = 0; # supressing warnings about uninitialized fields.
if (!$name && $seq->can('attributes') ) { ($name) = $seq->attributes('Alias'); } if ($seq->can('accession_number') && defined $seq->accession_number && $seq->accession_number ne 'unknown') { $uniquename = $seq->accession_number; } elsif ($seq->can('accession') && defined $seq->accession && $seq->accession ne 'unknown') { $uniquename = $seq->accession; } elsif ($seq->can('attributes')) { ($uniquename) = $seq->attributes('load_id'); } else { $uniquename = $name; } my $len = $seq->length(); if ($len == 0) { $len = undef; } undef(my $gb_type); if (!$seq->can('molecule') || ! defined ($gb_type = $seq->molecule()) ) { $gb_type = $seq->can('alphabet') ? $seq->alphabet : 'DNA'; } $gb_type = 'DNA' if $ftype eq 'dna'; $gb_type = 'RNA' if $ftype eq 'rna'; if(length $seq_so_type > 0) { if (defined $seq_so_type) { $ftype = $seq_so_type; } elsif ($seq->type) { $ftype = ($seq->type =~ /(.*):/) ? $1 : $seq->type; } else { $ftype = $gb_type; } } else { $ftype = $gb_type; } my %ftype_hash = $self->return_ftype_hash($ftype); if ($species) { %organism = ("genus"=>$genus, "species" => $species); } else { my $spec = $seq->species(); if (!defined $spec) { $self->throw("$seq does not know what organism it is from, which is required by chado. cannot proceed!\n"); } else { %organism = ("genus"=>$spec->genus(), "species" => $spec->species()); } } my $residues; if (!$self->suppress_residues || ($self->suppress_residues && $self->allow_residues eq $ftype)) { $residues = $seq->seq->isa('Bio::PrimarySeq') ? $seq->seq->seq : $seq->seq; } else { $residues = ''; } #set is_analysis flag for gene model features
undef(my $isanal); if ($ftype eq 'gene' || $ftype eq 'mRNA' || $ftype eq 'exon' || $ftype eq 'protein' || $ftype eq 'polypeptide') { $isanal = $isanalysis; $isanal = 'false' if !defined $isanal; } %datahash = ( "name" => $name, "uniquename" => $uniquename, "seqlen" => $len, "residues" => $residues, "type_id" =>\% ftype_hash, "organism_id" =>\% organism, "is_analysis" => $isanal || 'false', ); if (defined $srcfeature) { %srcfhash = $self->_srcf_hash($srcfeature, $srcfeattype,\% organism); my ($phase,$strand); if ($seq->can('phase')) { $phase = $seq->phase; } if ($seq->can('strand')) { $strand = $seq->strand; } my %fl = ( "srcfeature_id" =>\% srcfhash, "fmin" => $seq->start - 1, "fmax" => $seq->end, "strand" => $strand, "phase" => $phase, ); $datahash{'featureloc'} =\% fl; } #if $srcfeature is not given, use the Bio::Seq object itself as the srcfeature for featureloc's
if (!defined $srcfeature) { $srcfeature = $uniquename; $srcfeattype = $ftype; } #default data source is 'GenBank'
if (!defined $datasource) { $datasource = 'GenBank'; } if ($datasource =~ /GenBank/i) { #sequence topology as feature_cvterm
if ($seq->can('is_circular') && $seq->is_circular) { %sthash = ( "cvterm_id" => {'name' => 'circular', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => 'sequence topology', }, }, "pub_id" => {'uniquename' => 'nullpub', 'type_id' => { 'name' => 'null pub', 'cv_id' => { 'name'=> 'pub type', }, }, }, ); } else { %sthash = ( "cvterm_id" => { 'name' => 'linear', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => 'sequence topology', } }, "pub_id" => {'uniquename' => 'nullpub', 'type_id' => { 'name' => 'null pub', 'cv_id' => { 'name'=> 'pub type', }, }, }, ); } push(@feature_cvterms,\% sthash); #division as feature_cvterm
if ($seq->can('division') && defined $seq->division()) { $div = $seq->division(); %dvhash = ( "cvterm_id" => {'name' => $div, 'cv_id' => { 'name' => 'GenBank division'}}, "pub_id" => {'uniquename' => 'nullpub', 'type_id' => { 'name' => 'null pub', 'cv_id' => { 'name'=> 'pub type'}, }}, ); push(@feature_cvterms,\% dvhash); } $datahash{'feature_cvterm'} =\@ feature_cvterms; } # closes if GenBank
#featureprop's
#DEFINITION
if ($seq->can('desc') && defined $seq->desc()) { $temp = $seq->desc(); my %prophash = ( "type_id" => {'name' => 'description', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'feature_property'} }, }, "value" => $temp, ); push(@top_featureprops,\% prophash); } #KEYWORDS
if ($seq->can('keywords')) { $temp = $seq->keywords(); if (defined $temp && $temp ne '.' && $temp ne '') { my %prophash = ( "type_id" => {'name' => 'keywords', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'feature_property'} } }, "value" => $temp, ); push(@top_featureprops,\% prophash); } } #COMMENT
if ($seq->can('annotation')) { $ann = $seq->annotation(); foreach my $comment ($ann->get_Annotations('comment')) { $temp = $comment->as_text(); #print "fcomment: $temp\n";
my %prophash = ( "type_id" => {'name' => 'comment', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'feature_property'} } }, "value" => $temp, ); push(@top_featureprops,\% prophash); } } my @top_dbxrefs = (); #feature object from Bio::DB::SeqFeature::Store
if ($seq->can('attributes')) { my %attributes = $seq->attributes; for my $key (keys %attributes) { next if ($key eq 'parent_id'); next if ($key eq 'load_id'); if ($key eq 'Alias') { @featuresyns = $self->handle_Alias_tag($seq,@featuresyns); } ###FIXME deal with Dbxref, Ontology_term,source,
elsif ($key eq 'Ontology_term') { @top_featurecvterms = $self->handle_Ontology_tag($seq,@top_featurecvterms); } elsif ($key eq 'dbxref' or $key eq 'Dbxref') { @top_dbxrefs = $self->handle_dbxref($seq, $key, @top_dbxrefs); } elsif ($key =~ /^[a-z]/) { @top_featureprops = $self->handle_unreserved_tags($seq,$key,@top_featureprops); } } } $datahash{'feature_synonym'} =\@ featuresyns; if ($seq->can('source')) { @top_dbxrefs = $self->handle_source($seq,@top_dbxrefs); } #accession and version as feature_dbxref
if ($seq->can('accession_number') && defined $seq->accession_number && $seq->accession_number ne 'unknown') { my $db = $self->_guess_acc_db($seq, $seq->accession_number); my %acchash = ( "db_id" => {'name' => $db}, "accession" => $seq->accession_number, "version" => $seq->seq_version, ); my %fdbx = ('dbxref_id' =>\% acchash); push(@top_dbxrefs,\% fdbx); } if( $seq->isa('Bio::Seq::RichSeqI') && defined $seq->get_secondary_accessions() ) { my @secacc = $seq->get_secondary_accessions(); my $acc; foreach $acc (@secacc) { my %acchash = ( "db_id" => {'name' => 'GB'}, "accession" => $acc, ); my %fdbx = ('dbxref_id' =>\% acchash); push(@top_dbxrefs,\% fdbx); } } #GI number
if( $seq->isa('Bio::Seq::RichSeqI') && defined ($seq->pid)) { my $id = $seq->pid; #print "reftype: ", ref($id), "\n";
#if (ref($id) eq 'HASH') {
my %acchash = ( "db_id" => {'name' => 'GI'}, "accession" => $id, ); my %fdbx = ('dbxref_id' =>\% acchash); push (@top_dbxrefs,\% fdbx); } #REFERENCES as feature_pub
if (defined $ann) { #get the references
@references = $ann->get_Annotations('reference'); foreach $ref (@references) { undef(my %pubhash); $refhash = $ref->hash_tree(); $location = $ref->location || $refhash->{'location'}; #print "location: $location\n";
#get FBrf#, special for FlyBase SEAN loading
if (index($location, ' ==') >= 0) { $location =~ /\s==/; #print "match: $MATCH\n";
#print "prematch: $PREMATCH\n";
#print "postmatch: $POSTMATCH\n";
$fbrf = $PREMATCH; $location = $POSTMATCH; $location =~ s/^\s//; } #print "location: $location\n";
#unpublished reference
if ($location =~ /Unpublished/) { $pubtype = 'unpublished'; %pubhash = ( "title" => $ref->title || $refhash->{'title'}, #"miniref" => substr($location, 0, 255),
#"uniquename" => $fbrf,
"type_id" => {'name' => $pubtype, 'cv_id' => {'name' =>'pub type'}} ); } #submitted
elsif ($location =~ /Submitted/) { $pubtype = 'submitted'; %pubhash = ( "title" => $ref->title || $refhash->{'title'}, #"miniref" => substr($location, 0, 255),
#"uniquename" => $fbrf,
"type_id" => {'name' => $pubtype, 'cv_id' => {'name' =>'pub type'}} ); undef(my $pyear); $pyear = $self->_getSubmitYear($location); if (defined $pyear) { $pubhash{'pyear'} = $pyear; } } #published journal paper
elsif ($location =~ /\D+\s\d+\s\((\d+|\d+-\d+)\),\s(\d+-\d+|\d+--\d+)\s\(\d\d\d\d\)$/) { $pubtype = 'paper'; #parse location to get journal, volume, issue, pages & year
$location =~ /\(\d\d\d\d\)$/; $year = $MATCH; my $stuff = $PREMATCH; $year =~ s/\(//; #remove the leading parenthesis
$year =~ s/\)//; #remove the trailing parenthesis
$stuff =~ /,\s(\d+-\d+|\d+--\d+)\s$/; $pages = $MATCH; $stuff = $PREMATCH; $pages =~ s/^, //; #remove the leading comma and space
$pages =~ s/ $//; #remove the last space
$stuff =~ /\s\d+\s\((\d+|\d+-\d+)\)$/; $volumeissue = $MATCH; $journal = $PREMATCH; $volumeissue =~ s/^ //; #remove the leading space
$volumeissue =~ /\((\d+|\d+-\d+)\)$/; $issue = $MATCH; $volume = $PREMATCH; $issue =~ s/^\(//; #remove the leading parentheses
$issue =~ s/\)$//; #remove the last parentheses
$volume =~ s/^\s//; #remove the leading space
$volume =~ s/\s$//; #remove the last space
%pubhash = ( "title" => $ref->title || $refhash->{'title'}, "volume" => $volume, "issue" => $issue, "pyear" => $year, "pages" => $pages, #"miniref" => substr($location, 0, 255),
#"miniref" => ' ',
#"uniquename" => $fbrf,
"type_id" => {'name' => $pubtype, 'cv_id' => {'name' =>'pub type'}}, "pub_relationship" => { 'obj_pub_id' => { 'uniquename' => $journal, 'title' => $journal, #'miniref' => substr($journal, 0, 255),
'type_id' =>{'name' => 'journal', 'cv_id' => {'name' => 'pub type' }, }, #'pubprop' =>{'value'=> $journal,
# 'type_id'=>{'name' => 'abbreviation', 'cv_id' => {'name' => 'pubprop type'}},
# },
}, 'type_id' => { 'name' => 'published_in', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => 'pub relationship type'}, }, }, ); } #other references
else { $pubtype = 'other'; %pubhash = ( "title" => $ref->title || $refhash->{'title'}, #"miniref" => $fbrf,
"type_id" => { 'name' => $pubtype, 'cv_id' => {'name' =>'pub type'} } ); } #pub_author
my $autref = $self->_getRefAuthors($ref); if (defined $autref) { $pubhash{'pub_author'} = $autref; } # if no author and is type 'submitted' and has submitter address, use the first 100 characters of submitter address as the author lastname.
else { if ($pubtype eq 'submitted') { my $autref = $self->_getSubmitAddr($ref); if (defined $autref) { $pubhash{'pub_author'} = $autref; } } } #$ref->comment as pubprop
#print "ref comment: ", $ref->comment, "\n";
#print "ref comment: ", $refhash->{'comment'}, "\n";
if (defined $ref->comment || defined $refhash->{'comment'}) { my $comnt = $ref->comment || $refhash->{'comment'}; #print "remark: ", $comnt, "\n";
$pubhash{'pubprop'} = { "type_id" => {'name' => 'comment', 'cv_id' => {'name' => 'pubprop type'}}, "value" => $comnt, }; } #pub_dbxref
undef(my @pub_dbxrefs); if (defined $fbrf) { push(@pub_dbxrefs, {dbxref_id => {accession => $fbrf, db_id => {'name' => 'FlyBase'}}}); } if (defined ($temp = $ref->medline)) { push(@pub_dbxrefs, {dbxref_id => {accession => $temp, db_id => {'name' => 'MEDLINE'}}}); #use medline # as the pub's uniquename
$pubhash{'uniquename'} = $temp; } if (defined ($temp = $ref->pubmed)) { push(@pub_dbxrefs, {dbxref_id => {accession => $temp, db_id => {'name' => 'PUBMED'}}}); } $pubhash{'pub_dbxref'} =\@ pub_dbxrefs; #if the pub uniquename is not defined or blank, put its FBrf# as its uniquename
#this is unique to FlyBase
#USERS OF THIS MODULE: PLEASE MODIFY HERE TO IMPLEMENT YOUR POLICY
# ON PUB UNIQUENAME!!!
if (!defined $pubhash{'uniquename'} || $pubhash{'uniquename'} eq '') { if (defined $fbrf) { $pubhash{'uniquename'} = $fbrf; } #else {
# $pubhash{'uniquename'} = $self->_CreatePubUname($ref);
#}
} #add to collection of references
#if the pub covers the entire sequence of the top-level feature, add it to feature_pubs
if (($ref->start == 1 && $ref->end == $len) || (!defined $ref->start && !defined $ref->end)) { push(@feature_pubs, {"pub_id" =>\% pubhash}); } #the pub is about a sub-sequence of the top-level feature
#create a feature for the sub-sequence and add pub as its feature_pub
#featureloc of this sub-sequence is against the top-level feature, in interbase coordinates.
else { my %parf = ( 'uniquename' => $uniquename . ':' . $ref->start . "\.\." . $ref->end, 'organism_id' =>\%organism, 'type_id' =>{'name' =>'region', 'cv_id' => {'name' => $cv_name{'sequence'} }}, ); my %parfsrcf = ( 'uniquename' => $uniquename, 'organism_id' =>\%organism, ); my %parfloc = ( 'srcfeature_id' =>\% parfsrcf, 'fmin' => $ref->start - 1, 'fmax' => $ref->end, ); $parf{'featureloc'} =\% parfloc; $parf{'feature_pub'} = {'pub_id' =>\% pubhash}; my %ffr = ( 'subject_id' =>\% parf, 'type_id' => { 'name' => 'partof', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'relationship'}}}, ); push(@top_featrels,\% ffr); } } $datahash{'feature_pub'} =\@ feature_pubs; } ##construct srcfeature hash for use in featureloc
if (defined $srcfeature) { %srcfhash = $self->_srcf_hash($srcfeature, $srcfeattype,\% organism); # my %fr = (
# "object_id" => \%srcfhash,
# "type_id" => { 'name' => 'partof', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => 'relationship type'}},
# );
# push (@top_featrels, \%fr);
} #unflatten the seq features in $seq if $seq is a gene or a DNA sequence
if (($gb_type eq 'gene' || $gb_type eq 'DNA') && !$nounflatten) { my $u = Bio::SeqFeature::Tools::Unflattener->new; $u->unflatten_seq(-seq=>$seq, -use_magic=>1); } my @top_sfs = $seq->get_SeqFeatures; #print $#top_sfs, "\n";
#SUBFEATURES
if ($datasource =~ /GenBank/i) { $tag_cv = 'GenBank feature qualifier'; } elsif ($datasource =~ /GFF/i) { $tag_cv = 'feature_property'; } else { $tag_cv = $cv_name{'feature_property'}; } my $si = 0; foreach $feat (@top_sfs) { #$feat = $top_sfs[$si];
#print "si: $si\n";
my $prim_tag = $feat->primary_tag; #print $prim_tag, "\n";
# get all qualifiers of the 'source' feature, load these as top_featureprops of the top level feature
if ($prim_tag eq 'source') { foreach $tag ($feat->all_tags()) { #db_xref
if ($tag eq 'db_xref' or $tag eq 'Dbxref' or $tag eq 'dbxref') { my @t1 = $feat->each_tag_value($tag); foreach $temp (@t1) { $temp =~ /([^:]*?):(.*)/; my $db = $1; my $xref = $2; #PRE/POST very inefficent
#my $db = $PREMATCH;
#my $xref = $POSTMATCH;
my %acchash = ( "db_id" => {'name' => $db}, "accession" => $xref, ); my %fdbx = ('dbxref_id' =>\% acchash); push (@top_dbxrefs,\% fdbx); } #Ontology_term
} elsif ($tag eq 'Ontology_term') { my @t1 = $feat->each_tag_value($tag); foreach $temp (@t1) { ###FIXME
} #other tags as featureprop
} elsif ($tag ne 'gene') { my %prophash = undef; %prophash = ( "type_id" => {'name' => $tag, 'cv_id' => {'name' => $tag_cv}}, "value" => join(' ',$feat->each_tag_value($tag)), ); push(@top_featureprops,\% prophash); } } if ($feat->can('source')) { my $source = $feat->source(); @top_dbxrefs = $self->handle_source($feat, @top_dbxrefs); } #featureloc for the top-level feature
my $fmin = undef; my $fmax = undef; my $strand = undef; my $phase = undef; my %fl = undef; $fmin = $feat->start - 1; $fmax = $feat->end; $strand = $feat->strand; if ($feat->can('phase')) { $phase = $feat->phase; } %fl = ( "srcfeature_id" =>\% srcfhash, "fmin" => $fmin, "fmax" => $fmax, "strand" => $strand, "phase" => $phase, ); $datahash{'featureloc'} =\% fl; #delete 'source' feature from @top_sfs
splice(@top_sfs, $si, 1); } $si ++; #close loop over top_sfs
} #the top-level features other than 'source'
foreach $feat (@top_sfs) { #print $feat->primary_tag, "\n";
my $r = $self->_subfeat2featrelhash($name, $ftype, $feat,\% srcfhash, $tag_cv, $isanalysis); if (!($ftype eq 'mRNA' && $feat->primary_tag eq 'gene')) { my %fr = %$r; push(@top_featrels,\% fr); } else { %finaldatahash = %$r; } } if (@top_dbxrefs) { $datahash{'feature_dbxref'} =\@ top_dbxrefs; } if (@top_featureprops) { $datahash{'featureprop'} =\@ top_featureprops; } if (@top_featrels) { $datahash{'feature_relationship'} =\@ top_featrels; } if (@top_featurecvterms) { $datahash{'feature_cvterm'} =\@ top_featurecvterms; } if ($ftype eq 'mRNA' && %finaldatahash) { $finaldatahash{'feature_relationship'} = { 'subject_id' =>\% datahash, 'type_id' => { 'name' => 'partof', 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'relationship'} }}, }; } else { %finaldatahash = %datahash; } my $mainTag = 'feature'; $self->_hash2xml(undef, $mainTag,\% finaldatahash); return 1;
}
_hash2xmldescriptionprevnextTop
sub _hash2xml {
    my $self = shift;
    my $isMatch = undef;
    $isMatch = shift;
    my $ult = shift;
    my $ref = shift;
    my %mh = %$ref;
    my $key;
    my $v;
    my $sh;
    my $xx;
    my $yy;
    my $nt;
    my $ntref;
    my $output;
    my $root = shift if (@_);
    #print "ult: $ult\n";
if (!defined $self->{'writer'}) { $root = 1; $self->_create_writer(); } my $temp; my %subh = undef; #start opeing tag
#if pub record of type 'journal', form the 'ref' attribute for special pub lookup
#requires that the journal name itself is also stored as a pubprop record for the journal with value equal
#to the journal name and type of 'abbreviation'.
if ($ult eq 'pub' && $mh{'type_id'}->{'name'} eq 'journal') { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($ult, 'ref' => $mh{'title'} . ':journal:abbreviation'); } #special pub match if pub uniquename not known
elsif ($ult eq 'pub' && !defined $mh{'uniquename'}) { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($ult, 'op' => 'match'); #set the match flag, all the sub tags should also have "op"="match"
$isMatch = 1; } #if cvterm or cv, lookup only
elsif (($ult eq 'cvterm') || ($ult eq 'cv')) { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($ult, 'op' => 'lookup'); } #if nested tables of match table, match too
elsif ($isMatch) { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($ult, 'op' => 'match'); } else { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($ult); } #first loop to produce xml for all the table columns
foreach $key (keys %mh) { #print "key: $key\n";
$xx = ' ' . $key; $yy = $key . ' '; if (index($chadotables, $xx) < 0 && index($chadotables, $yy) < 0) { if ($isMatch) { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($key, 'op' => 'match'); } else { $self->{'writer'}->startTag($key); } my $x = $ult . '.' . $key; #the column is a foreign key
if (defined $fkey{$x}) { $nt = $fkey{$x}; $sh = $mh{$key}; $self->_hash2xml($isMatch, $nt, $sh, 0); } else { #print "$key: $mh{$key}\n";
$self->{'writer'}->characters($mh{$key}); } $self->{'writer'}->endTag($key); } } #second loop to produce xml for all the nested tables
foreach $key (keys %mh) { #print "key: $key\n";
$xx = ' ' . $key; $yy = $key . ' '; #a nested table
if (index($chadotables, $xx) > 0 || index($chadotables, $yy) > 0) { #$writer->startTag($key);
$ntref = $mh{$key}; #print "$key: ", ref($ntref), "\n";
if (ref($ntref) =~ 'HASH') { $self->_hash2xml($isMatch, $key, $ntref, 0); } elsif (ref($ntref) =~ 'ARRAY') { #print "array dim: ", $#$ntref, "\n";
foreach $ref (@$ntref) { #print "\n";
$self->_hash2xml($isMatch, $key, $ref, 0); } } #$writer->endTag($key);
} } #end tag
$self->{'writer'}->endTag($ult); #if ($root == 1) {
# $self->{'writer'}->endTag('chado');
# }
}
_guess_acc_dbdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _guess_acc_db {
    my $self = shift;
    my $seq = shift;
    my $acc = shift;
    #print "acc: $acc\n";
if ($acc =~ /^NM_\d{6}/ || $acc =~ /^NP_\d{6}/ || $acc =~ /^NT_\d{6}/ || $acc =~ /^NC_\d{6}/) { return "RefSeq"; } elsif ($acc =~ /^XM_\d{6}/ || $acc =~ /^XP_\d{6}/ || $acc =~ /^XR_\d{6}/) { return "RefSeq"; } elsif ($acc =~ /^[a-zA-Z]{1,2}\d{5,6}/) { return "GB"; } elsif ($seq->molecule() eq 'protein' && $acc =~ /^[a-zA-z]\d{5}/) { return "PIR"; } elsif ($seq->molecule() eq 'protein' && $acc =~ /^\d{6,7}[a-zA-Z]/) { return "PRF"; } elsif ($acc =~ /\d+/ && $acc !~ /[a-zA-Z]/) { return "LocusID"; } elsif ($acc =~ /^CG\d+/ || $acc =~ /^FB[a-z][a-z]\d+/) { return "FlyBase"; } else { return "unknown"; }
}
_subfeat2featrelhashdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _subfeat2featrelhash {
    my $self = shift;
    my $genename = shift;
    my $seqtype = shift;
    my $feat = shift;
    my $r = shift;
    my %srcf = %$r;     #srcfeature hash for featureloc.srcfeature_id
my $tag_cv = shift; my $isanalysis = shift; my $prim_tag = $feat->primary_tag; my $sfunique = undef; #subfeature uniquename
my $sfname = undef; #subfeature name
my $sftype = undef; #subfeature type
if ($feat->has_tag('symbol')) { ($sfunique) = $feat->each_tag_value("symbol"); } elsif ($feat->has_tag('label')) { ($sfunique) = $feat->each_tag_value("label"); } else { #$self->throw("$prim_tag at " . $feat->start . "\.\." . $feat->end . " does not have symbol or label! To convert into chadoxml, a seq feature must have a /symbol or /label tag holding its unique name.");
#generate feature unique name as <genename>-<feature-type>-<span>
$sfunique = $self->_genFeatUniqueName($genename, $feat); } if ($feat->has_tag('Name')) { ($sfname) = $feat->each_tag_value("Name"); } #feature type translation
if (defined $feattype_args2so{$prim_tag}) { $sftype = $feattype_args2so{$prim_tag}; } else { $sftype = $prim_tag; } if ($prim_tag eq 'mutation') { if ($feat->start == $feat->end) { $sftype = $feattype_args2so{'mutation1'}; } else { $sftype = $feattype_args2so{'mutation2'}; } } #set is_analysis flag for gene model features
undef(my $isanal); if ($sftype eq 'gene' || $sftype eq 'mRNA' || $sftype eq 'exon' || $sftype eq 'protein' || $sftype eq 'polypeptide') { $isanal = $isanalysis; } my %sfhash = ( "name" => $sfname, "uniquename" => $sfunique, "organism_id" =>\% organism, "type_id" => { 'name' => $sftype, 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'sequence'} }}, "is_analysis" => $isanal || 'false', ); #make a copy of %sfhash for passing to this method when recursively called
#my %srcfeat = (
# "name" => $sfname,
# "uniquename" => $sfunique,
# "organism_id" => \%organism,
# "type_id" => { 'name' => $sftype, 'cv_id' => { 'name' => 'SO'}},
# );
#featureloc for subfeatures
undef(my $sfmin); undef(my $sfmax); undef(my $is_sfmin_partial); undef(my $is_sfmax_partial); undef(my $sfstrand); undef(my $sfphase); $sfmin = $feat->start - 1; $sfmax = $feat->end; $sfstrand = $feat->strand(); if ($feat->can('phase')) { $sfphase = $feat->phase; } #if the gene feature in an mRNA record, cannot use its coordinates, omit featureloc
if ($seqtype eq 'mRNA' && $sftype eq 'gene') { } else { if ($feat->location->isa('Bio::Location::FuzzyLocationI')) { if ($feat->location->start_pos_type() ne 'EXACT') { $is_sfmin_partial = 'true'; } if ($feat->location->end_pos_type() ne 'EXACT') { $is_sfmax_partial = 'true'; } } my %sfl = ( "srcfeature_id" =>\% srcf, "fmin" => $sfmin, "is_fmin_partial" => $is_sfmin_partial || 'false', "fmax" => $sfmax, "is_fmax_partial" => $is_sfmax_partial || 'false', "strand" => $sfstrand, "phase" => $sfphase, ); $sfhash{'featureloc'} =\% sfl; } #subfeature tags
undef(my @sfdbxrefs); #subfeature dbxrefs
undef(my @sub_featureprops); #subfeature props
undef(my @sub_featuresyns); #subfeature synonyms
undef(my @sub_featurecvterms); #subfeature cvterms
foreach my $tag ($feat->all_tags()) { #feature_dbxref for features
if ($tag eq 'db_xref' or $tag eq 'dbxref' or $tag eq 'Dbxref') { my @t1 = $feat->each_tag_value($tag); #print "# of dbxref: @t1\n";
for my $temp (@t1) { $temp =~ /:/; my $db = $PREMATCH; my $xref = $POSTMATCH; #print "db: $db; xref: $xref\n";
my %acchash = ( "db_id" => {'name' => $db}, "accession" => $xref, ); my %sfdbx = ('dbxref_id' =>\% acchash); push (@sfdbxrefs,\% sfdbx); } #Alias tags
} elsif ($tag eq 'Alias') { @sub_featuresyns = $self->handle_Alias_tag($feat, @sub_featuresyns); } elsif ($tag eq 'Ontology_term') { @sub_featurecvterms = $self->handle_Ontology_tag($feat, @sub_featurecvterms); #featureprop for features, excluding GFF Name & Parent tags
} elsif ($tag ne 'gene' && $tag ne 'symbol' && $tag ne 'Name' && $tag ne 'Parent') { next if ($tag eq 'parent_id'); next if ($tag eq 'load_id'); foreach my $val ($feat->each_tag_value($tag)) { my %prophash = undef; %prophash = ( "type_id" => {'name' => $tag, 'cv_id' => {'name' => $tag_cv}}, "value" => $val, ); push(@sub_featureprops,\% prophash); } } } if ($feat->can('source')) { @sfdbxrefs = $self->handle_source($feat,@sfdbxrefs); } if (@sub_featureprops) { $sfhash{'featureprop'} =\@ sub_featureprops; } if (@sfdbxrefs) { $sfhash{'feature_dbxref'} =\@ sfdbxrefs; } if (@sub_featuresyns) { $sfhash{'feature_synonym'} =\@ sub_featuresyns; } if (@sub_featurecvterms) { $sfhash{'feature_cvterm'} =\@ sub_featurecvterms; } undef(my @ssfeatrel); if ($feat->has_tag('locus_tag')) { ($genename)= $feat->each_tag_value('locus_tag'); } elsif ($feat->has_tag('gene')) { ($genename)= $feat->each_tag_value('gene'); } foreach my $sf ($feat->get_SeqFeatures()) { #print $sf->primary_tag, "\n";
my $rref = $self->_subfeat2featrelhash($genename, $sftype, $sf,\% srcf, $tag_cv, $isanalysis); if (defined $rref) { push(@ssfeatrel, $rref); } } if (@ssfeatrel) { $sfhash{'feature_relationship'} =\@ ssfeatrel; } #subj-obj relationship type
undef(my $reltypename); $reltypename = return_reltypename($sftype); my %fr = ( "subject_id" =>\% sfhash, "type_id" => { 'name' => $reltypename, 'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'relationship'} }}, ); if ($seqtype eq 'mRNA' && $sftype eq 'gene') { return\% sfhash; } else { return\% fr; } } #generate uniquename for feature as: <genename>-<feature-type>-<span> (foo-mRNA-10..1000)
}
_genFeatUniqueNamedescriptionprevnextTop
sub _genFeatUniqueName {
    my $self = shift;
    my $genename = shift;
    my $feat = shift;
    undef(my $uniquename);
    my $ftype = $feat->primary_tag;
    my $start = $feat->start;
    my $end = $feat->end;

    if ($feat->has_tag('locus_tag')) {
        ($genename) = $feat->each_tag_value("locus_tag");
    } elsif ($feat->has_tag('gene')) {
        ($genename) = $feat->each_tag_value("gene");
    }

    $uniquename = $genename . '-' . $ftype . '-' . $start . "\.\." . $end;

    return $uniquename;
}

#create uniquename for pubs with no medline id and no FBrf#
#use "<authors>, <year>, <type>" as the uniquename (same as miniref)
#<authors> is <sole-author-surname> if one author,
# or <first-author-surname> and <second-author-surname> if two,
# or <first-author-surname> et al. if more
#sub _CreatePubUname {
# my $self = shift;
# my $pub = shift;
# undef(my $pubuname);
#
# return $pubuname;
#}
#get authors of a reference
#returns ref to the array of author hashes
}
_getRefAuthorsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _getRefAuthors {
    my $self = shift;
    my $ref = shift;

    my $temp = $ref->authors;
    undef(my @authors);
    undef(my @aut);

    #there are authors
if ($temp ne '.') { if (index($temp, ' and ') > 0) { $temp =~ / and /; my $lastauthor = $POSTMATCH; @authors = split(/\, /, $PREMATCH); push (@authors, $lastauthor); } else { @authors = split(/\, /, $temp); } my $a; my $i = 0; foreach $a (@authors) { $i ++; #parse the author lastname and givennames
undef(my $last); undef(my $given); if (index($a, ',') > 0) { #genbank format, last,f.m.
($last, $given) = split(/\,/, $a); } elsif (index($a, ' ') > 0) { #embl format, last f.m.
($last, $given) = split(/ /, $a); } my %au = ( 'surname' => $last, 'givennames' => $given, ); push(@aut, {author_id =>\% au, arank => $i}); } return\@ aut; } #no authors, Bio::SeqIO::genbank doesn't pick up 'CONSRTM' line.
else { return; } } #extract submission year from the citation of the submitted reference
#genbank format for the submitted citation: JOURNAL Submitted (DD-MON-YYYY) submitter address
}
_getSubmitYeardescriptionprevnextTop
sub _getSubmitYear {
    my $self = shift;
    my $citation = shift;

    if ($citation !~ /Submitted/) {
    $self->warn("not citation for a submitted reference. cannot extract submission year.");
    return;
    } else {
    $citation =~ /Submitted \(\d\d-[a-zA-Z]{3}-\d{4}\)/;
    my $a = $MATCH;
    $a =~ /\d{4}/;
    my $year = $MATCH;

    return $year;
    }
}
_getSubmitAddrdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _getSubmitAddr {
    my $self = shift;
    my $ref = shift;
    undef(my %author);

    my $citation = $ref->location;
    if ($citation !~ /Submitted/) {
    $self->warn("not citation for a submitted reference. cannot extract submission year.");
    return;
    } else {
    $citation =~ /Submitted \(\d\d-[a-zA-Z]{3}-\d{4}\)/;
    my $a = $POSTMATCH;
    if (defined $a) {
        $a =~ s/^\s//;
        %author = (
               'author_id'  => {'surname'   => substr($a, 0, 100)},
               );
        return\% author;
    } else {
        return;
    }
    }
}
suppress_residuesdescriptionprevnextTop
sub suppress_residues {
    my $self = shift;
    my $suppress_residues = shift if @_;
    return $self->{'suppress_residues'} = $suppress_residues if defined($suppress_residues);
    return $self->{'suppress_residues'};
}
allow_residuesdescriptionprevnextTop
sub allow_residues {
    my $self = shift;
    my $allow_residues = shift if defined(@_);
    return $self->{'allow_residues'} = $allow_residues if defined($allow_residues);
    return $self->{'allow_residues'};
}
return_ftype_hashdescriptionprevnextTop
sub return_ftype_hash {
    my $self  = shift;
    my $ftype = shift;
    my %ftype_hash = ( "name" => $ftype,
                       "cv_id" => {"name" => $cv_name{'sequence'} });
    return %ftype_hash;
}
return_reltypenamedescriptionprevnextTop
sub return_reltypename {
    my $self   = shift;
    my $sftype = shift;

    my $reltypename;
    if ($sftype eq 'protein' || $sftype eq 'polypeptide') {
        $reltypename = 'derives_from';
    } else {
        $reltypename = 'part_of';
    }

    return $reltypename;
}
next_seqdescriptionprevnextTop
sub next_seq {
    my ($self, %argv) = @_;

    $self->throw('next_seq is not implemented; this is a write-only adapter.');
}
_create_writerdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _create_writer {
    my $self = shift;

    $self->{'writer'} = new XML::Writer(OUTPUT => $self->_fh,
                                        DATA_MODE => 1,
                                        DATA_INDENT => 3);

    #print header
$self->{'writer'}->xmlDecl("UTF-8"); $self->{'writer'}->comment("created by Peili Zhang, Flybase, Harvard University\n". "and Scott Cain, GMOD, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory"); #start chadoxml
$self->{'writer'}->startTag('chado'); return;
}
close_chadoxmldescriptionprevnextTop
sub close_chadoxml {
    my $self = shift;

    $self->{'writer'}->endTag('chado');
    return;
}
handle_unreserved_tagsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub handle_unreserved_tags {
    my $self = shift;
    my $seq  = shift;
    my $key  = shift;
    my @arr  = @_;

    my @values = $seq->attributes($key);
    for my $value (@values) {
        my %prophash = (
           "type_id"     => {'name' => $key,
                             'cv_id' => { 'name' => $cv_name{'feature_property'} }
                            },
                            "value"       => $value,
                       );
        push(@arr,\% prophash);
    }

    return @arr;
}
handle_Alias_tagdescriptionprevnextTop
sub handle_Alias_tag {
    my $self = shift;
    my $seq  = shift;
    my @arr  = @_;

    my @Aliases = $seq->attributes('Alias');
    for my $Alias (@Aliases) {
        my %synhash = (
                  "type_id"   => { 'name' => 'exact',
                                  'cv_id' => { 'name'  => 'synonym_type' } },
                                 "name"         => $Alias,
                                 "synonym_sgml" => $Alias,
                      );
        push(@arr, {'synonym_id' =>\% synhash,
                    'pub_id'     => {'uniquename' => 'null',
                                     'type_id'    => { 'name' => 'null',
                                                       'cv_id' => {
                                                            'name' => 'null',
                                                                  },
                                                     },
                                    },
                   });
    }

    return @arr;
}
handle_Ontology_tagdescriptionprevnextTop
sub handle_Ontology_tag {
    my $self = shift;
    my $seq  = shift;
    my @arr  = @_;

    my @terms = $seq->attributes('Ontology_term');
    for my $term (@terms) {
        my $hashref;
        if ($term =~ /(\S+):(\S+)/) {
            my $db  = $1;
            my $acc = $2;
            $hashref = {
                    'cvterm_id' => {
                        'dbxref_id' => {
                           'db_id' => { 'name' => $db },
                           'accession' => $acc
                                      },
                                   },
                       };
        }
        push(@arr, {cvterm_id => $hashref});
    }

    return @arr;
}
handle_dbxrefdescriptionprevnextTop
sub handle_dbxref {
    my $self = shift;
    my $seq  = shift;
    my $tag  = shift;
    my @arr  = @_;

    my @terms = $seq->attributes($tag);
    for my $term (@terms) {
        my $hashref;
        if ($term =~ /(\S+):(\S+)/) {
            my $db = $1;
            my $acc= $2;
            my $version = 1;
            if ($acc =~ /(\S+)\.(\S+)/) {
                $acc = $1;
                $version = $2;
            }
            $hashref = {
                         'dbxref_id' => {
                               'db_id' => { 'name' => $db },
                               'accession' => $acc,
                               'version'   => $version,
                                        },
                       };
        }
        else {
            $self->throw("I don't know how to handle a dbxref like $term");
        }
        push(@arr, {'dbxref_id' => $hashref});
    }
    return @arr;
}
handle_sourcedescriptionprevnextTop
sub handle_source {
    my $self = shift;
    my $seq  = shift;
    my @arr  = @_;

    my $source = $seq->source();
    return @arr unless $source;

    my $hashref = {
               'dbxref_id' => {
                       'db_id' => {'name' => 'GFF_source'},
                       'accession' => $source,
                              }
                  };

    push(@arr, {'dbxref_id' => $hashref});
    return @arr;
}
_srcf_hashdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _srcf_hash {
    my $self = shift;
    my $srcf = shift;
    my $stype= shift;
    my $orgref = shift;

    my %hash = ('uniquename'    => $srcf,
                'organism_id'   => $orgref,
                'type_id'       => {'name' => $stype,
                                    'cv_id' =>
                                       {'name' => $cv_name{'sequence'} }},
               );

    return %hash;
}


1;
}
General documentation
FEEDBACKTop
Mailing ListsTop
User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other
Bioperl modules. Send your comments and suggestions preferably to one
of the Bioperl mailing lists. Your participation is much appreciated.
  bioperl-l@bioperl.org                  - General discussion
http://bioperl.org/wiki/Mailing_lists - About the mailing lists
SupportTop
Please direct usage questions or support issues to the mailing list:
bioperl-l@bioperl.org
rather than to the module maintainer directly. Many experienced and
reponsive experts will be able look at the problem and quickly
address it. Please include a thorough description of the problem
with code and data examples if at all possible.
Reporting BugsTop
Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track
the bugs and their resolution.
Bug reports can be submitted via the web:
  https://redmine.open-bio.org/projects/bioperl/
AUTHOR - Peili ZhangTop
Email peili@morgan.harvard.edu
APPENDIXTop
The rest of the documentation details each of the object
methods. Internal methods are usually preceded with a _