Bio Taxonomy
SummaryIncluded librariesPackage variablesSynopsisDescriptionGeneral documentationMethods
Bio::Taxonomy - representing Taxonomy.
Package variables
No package variables defined.
  # NB: This module is deprecated. Use Bio::Taxon in combination with
# Bio::Tree::Tree methods instead.
use Bio::Taxonomy; # CREATION: You can either create an instance by assigning it, # or fetch it through factory. # Create the nodes first. See Bio::Taxonomy::Node for details. my $node_species_sapiens = Bio::Taxonomy::Node->new( -object_id => 9606, # or -ncbi_taxid. Requird tag -names => { 'scientific' => ['sapiens'], 'common_name' => ['human'] }, -rank => 'species' # Required tag ); my $node_genus_Homo = Bio::Taxonomy::Node->new( -object_id => 9605, -names => { 'scientific' => ['Homo'] }, -rank => 'genus' ); my $node_class_Mammalia = Bio::Taxonomy::Node->new( -object_id => 40674, -names => { 'scientific' => ['Mammalia'], 'common' => ['mammals'] }, -rank => 'class' ); my $taxonomy = Bio::Taxonomy->new; $taxonomy->add_node($node_class_Mammalia); $taxonomy->add_node($node_species_sapiens); $taxonomy->add_node($node_genus_Homo); # OR you can fetch it through a factory implementing # Bio::Taxonomy::FactoryI my $factory; my $taxonomy = $factory->fetch_by_ncbi_taxid(40674); # USAGE # In this case, binomial returns a defined value. my $binomial = $taxonomy->binomial; # 'common_names' refers to the lowest-rank node's common names, in # array. my @common_names = $taxonomy->common_names; # 'get_node', will return undef if the rank is no defined in # taxonomy object. It will throw error if the rank string is not # defined, say 'species lah'. my $node = $taxonomy->get_node('class'); my @nodes = $taxonomy->get_all_nodes; # Also, you can search for parent and children nodes, if taxonomy # comes with factory. my $parent_taxonomy = $taxonomy->get_parent
Bio::Taxonomy object represents any rank-level in taxonomy system,
rather than Bio::Species which is able to represent only
There are two ways to create Taxonomy object, e.g.
1) instantiate an object and assign all nodes on your own code; and
2) fetch an object by factory. The abstraction of Taxonomy is actually a hash in data structure
term. The keys of the hash are the rank names, such as 'genus' and
'species', and the values are the instances of Bio::Taxonomy::Node. NCBI Taxonomy system is well accepted as the standard. The Taxonomy
Factories in bioperl access this system, through HTTP to NCBI Entrez,
dump file, and advanced biosql database.
Bio::Taxonomy::FactoryI defines all methods that all implementations
must obey.
$factory->fetch is a general method to fetch Taxonomy by either
NCBI taxid or any types of names.
$factory->fetch_parent($taxonomy), returns a Taxonomy that is
one-step higher rank of the taxonomy specified as argument.
$factory->fetch_children($taxonomy), reports an array of Taxonomy
those are one-step lower rank of the taxonomy specified as the
argument. ##
No description
Methods description
newcode    nextTop
 Title   : new
Usage : my $obj = Bio::Taxonomy->new();
Function: Builds a new Bio::Taxonomy object
Returns : Bio::Taxonomy
Args : -method -> method used to decide classification
-ranks -> what ranks are there
 Title   : method
Usage : $obj = taxonomy->method($method);
Function: set or return the method used to decide classification
Returns : $obj
Args : $obj
 Title   : classify
Usage : @obj[][0-1] = taxonomy->classify($species);
Function: return a ranked classification
Returns : @obj of taxa and ranks as word pairs separated by "@"
Args : Bio::Species object
 Title   : rank_of_number
Usage : $obj = taxonomy->rank_of_number($obj);
Function: returns the rank name of a rank level
Returns : $obj
Args : $obj
 Title   : ranks
Usage : @obj = taxonomy->ranks(@obj);
Function: set or return all ranks
Returns : @obj
Args : @obj
  Title:    add_node
Usage: $obj->add_node($node[, $node2, ...]);
Function: add one or more Bio::Taxonomy::Node objects
Returns: None
Args: any number of Bio::Taxonomy::Node(s)
  Title   : binomial
Usage : my $val = $obj->binomial;
Function: returns the binomial name if this taxonomy reachs species level
Returns : the binomial name
OR undef if taxonmy does not reach species level
Args : [No arguments]
  Title   : get_node
Usage : $node = $taxonomy->get_node('species');
Function: get a Bio::Taxonomy::Node object according to rank name
Returns : a Bio::Taxonomy::Node object or undef if null
Args : a vaild rank name
  Title   : classification
Usage : @names = $taxonomy->classification;
Function: get the classification names of one taxonomy
Returns : array of names
Args : [No arguments]
Methods code
sub new {
   my ($class,@args) = @_;

   my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@args);
   $self->warn("Bio::Taxonomy is deprecated. Use Bio::Taxon in combination with Bio::Tree::Tree instead.");

    $self->{_hierarchy} = {}; # used to store the nodes, with ranks as keys.
my ($method,$ranks,$order) = $self->_rearrange([qw(METHOD RANKS ORDER)], @args); if ($method) { $self->method($method); } if (defined $ranks && (ref($ranks) eq "ARRAY") ) { $self->ranks(@$ranks); } else { # default ranks
# I think these are in the right order, but not sure:
# some parvorder|suborder and varietas|subspecies seem
# to be at the same level - any taxonomists?
# I don't expect that these will actually be used except as a way
# to find what ranks there are in taxonomic use
$self->ranks(('root', 'superkingdom', 'kingdom', 'superphylum', 'phylum', 'subphylum', 'superclass', 'class', 'subclass', 'infraclass', 'superorder', 'order', 'suborder', 'parvorder', 'infraorder', 'superfamily', 'family', 'subfamily', 'tribe', 'subtribe', 'genus', 'subgenus', 'species group', 'species subgroup', 'species', 'subspecies', 'varietas', 'forma', 'no rank')); } return $self;
sub method {
   my ($self,$value) = @_;
   if (defined $value && $value=~/none|trust|lookup/) {
       $self->{'_method'} = $value;
   return $self->{'_method'};
sub classify {
   my ($self,$value) = @_;
   my @ranks;

   if (! $value->isa('Bio::Species') ) {
      $self->throw("Trying to classify $value which is not a Bio::Species object");

   my @classes=reverse($value->classification);

   if ($self->method eq 'none') {
      for (my $i=0; $i < @classes-2; $i++) {
         ($ranks[$i][0],$ranks[$i][1])=($classes[$i],'no rank');
      push @ranks,[$classes[-2],'genus'];
      push @ranks,[$value->binomial,'species'];
   } elsif ($self->method eq 'trust') {
      if (scalar(@classes)==scalar($self->ranks)) {
         for (my $i=0; $i < @classes; $i++) {
            if ($self->rank_of_number($i) eq 'species') {
               push @ranks,[$value->binomial,$self->rank_of_number($i)];
            } else {
               push @ranks,[$classes[$i],$self->rank_of_number($i)];
      } else {
         $self->throw("Species object and taxonomy object cannot be reconciled");
   } elsif ($self->method eq 'lookup') {
      # this will lookup a DB for the rank of a taxon name
# I imagine that some kind of Bio::DB class will be need to
# be given to the taxonomy object to act as an DB interface
# (I'm not sure how useful this is though - if you have a DB of
# taxonomy - why would you be doing things this way?)
$self->throw_not_implemented(); } return @ranks;
sub level_of {
   my ($self,$value) = @_;

   return $self->{'_rank_hash'}{$value};
sub rank_of_number {
   my ($self,$value) = @_;

   return ${$self->{'_ranks'}}[$value];
sub ranks {
   my ($self,@value) = @_;

   # currently this makes no uniqueness sanity check (this should be done)
# I am think that adding a way of converting multiple 'no rank' ranks
# to unique 'no rank #' ranks so that the level of a 'no rank' is
# abstracted way from the user - I'm not sure of the value of this
if (@value) { $self->{'_ranks'}=\@value; } for (my $i=0; $i <= @{$self->{'_ranks'}}-1; $i++) { $self->{'_rank_hash'}{$self->{'_ranks'}[$i]}=$i unless $self->{'_ranks'}[$i] eq 'no rank'; } return @{$self->{'_ranks'}};
sub add_node {
    my ($self, @nodes) = @_;
        $self->throw("A Bio::Taxonomy::Node object needed")
        my ($node, $rank) = ($_, $_->rank);
        if(exists $self->{_hierarchy}->{$rank}){
#            $self->throw("$rank has been defined");
# print STDERR "RANK:$rank\n";
# return;
} $self->{_hierarchy}->{$rank} = $node; }
sub binomial {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->get_node('species')->scientific_name;
    my $genus = $self->get_node('genus');
    my $species = $self->get_node('species');
    return ($species && $genus) ? "$species $genus" : undef;
sub get_node {
    my ($self, $rank) = @_;
    unless(grep /$rank/, keys %{$self->{_hierarchy}}){
        $self->throw("'$rank' is not in the rank list");
    return (exists $self->{_hierarchy}->{$rank})?
        $self->{_hierarchy}->{$rank} : undef;
sub classification {
    my $self = shift;
    my %rank_hash = %{$self->{_rank_hash}};
    my %hierarchy = %{$self->{_hierarchy}};
    my @ordered_nodes = sort {
        ($rank_hash{$a} <=> $rank_hash{$b})
    } keys %hierarchy;
    return map {$hierarchy{$_}->scientific_name} @ordered_nodes;

General documentation
Mailing ListsTop
User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other
Bioperl modules. Send your comments and suggestions preferably to
the Bioperl mailing list. Your participation is much appreciated.                  - General discussion - About the mailing lists
Support Top
Please direct usage questions or support issues to the mailing list:
rather than to the module maintainer directly. Many experienced and
reponsive experts will be able look at the problem and quickly
address it. Please include a thorough description of the problem
with code and data examples if at all possible.
Reporting BugsTop
Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track
of the bugs and their resolution. Bug reports can be submitted via the
Juguang Xiao,
The rest of the documentation details each of the object
methods. Internal methods are usually preceded with a _
 Title   : level_of_rank
Usage : $obj = taxonomy->level_of_rank($obj);
Function: returns the level of a rank name
Returns : $obj
Args : $obj