Bio::Tools SeqWords
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Summary
Bio::Tools::SeqWords - Object holding n-mer statistics for a sequence
Package variables
No package variables defined.
Inherit
Bio::Root::Root
Synopsis
  # Create the SeqWords object, e.g.:
my $inputstream = Bio::SeqIO->new(-file => "seqfile", -format => 'Fasta'); my $seqobj = $inputstream->next_seq(); my $seq_word = Bio::Tools::SeqWords->new(-seq => $seqobj); # Or: my $seqobj = Bio::PrimarySeq->new(-seq => "agggtttccc", -alphabet => 'dna', -id => 'test'); my $seq_word = Bio::Tools::SeqWords->new(-seq => $seqobj); # obtain a hash of word counts, eg: my $hash_ref = $seq_stats->count_words($word_length); # display hash table, eg: my %hash = %$hash_ref; foreach my $key(sort keys %hash) { print "\n$key\t$hash{$key}"; } # Or: my $hash_ref = Bio::Tools::SeqWords->count_words($seqobj,$word_length);
Description
Bio::Tools::SeqWords is a featherweight object for the calculation
of n-mer word occurrences in a single sequence. It is envisaged that
the object will be useful for construction of scripts which use n-mer
word tables as the raw material for statistical calculations; for
instance, hexamer frequency for the calculation of coding protential,
or the calculation of periodicity in repetitive DNA. Triplet
frequency is already handled by Bio::Tools::SeqStats (author: Peter
Schattner).
There are a few possible applications for protein, e.g. hypothesised
amino acid 7-mers in heat shock proteins, or proteins with multiple
simple motifs. Sometimes these protein periodicities are best seen
when the amino acid alphabet is truncated, e.g. Shulman alphabet.
Since there are quite a few of these shortened alphabets, this module
does not specify any particular alphabet.
See Synopsis above for object creation code. Take a sequence object and create an object for the purposes of
holding n-mer word statistics about that sequence. The sequence can be
nucleic acid or protein.
In count_words() the words are counted in a non-overlapping manner,
ie. in the style of a codon table, but with any word length.
In count_overlap_words() the words are counted in an overlapping
manner.
For counts on opposite strand (DNA/RNA), a reverse complement method
should be performed, and then the count repeated.
Methods
new
No description
Code
count_wordsDescriptionCode
count_overlap_wordsDescriptionCode
_count
No description
Code
Methods description
count_wordscode    nextTop
 Title   : count_words
Usage : $word_count = $seq_stats->count_words($word_length)
or
$word_count = $seq_stats->Bio::Tools::SeqWords->($seqobj,$word_length);
Function: Counts non-overlapping words within a string, any alphabet is
used
Example : a sequence ACCGTCCGT, counted at word length 4, will give the hash
{ACCG => 1, TCCG => 1}
Returns : Reference to a hash in which keys are words (any length) of the
alphabet used and values are number of occurrences of the word
in the sequence.
Args : Word length as scalar and, reference to sequence object if
required
Throws an exception word length is not a positive integer or if word length is longer than the sequence.
count_overlap_wordscodeprevnextTop
 Title   : count_overlap_words
Usage : $word_count = $word_obj->count_overlap_words($word_length);
Function: Counts overlapping words within a string, any alphabet is used
Example : A sequence ACCAACCA, counted at word length 4, will give the hash
{ACCA=>2, CCAA=>1, CAAC=>1, AACC=>1}
Returns : Reference to a hash in which keys are words (any length) of the
alphabet used and values are number of occurrences of the word in
the sequence.
Args : Word length as scalar
Throws an exception if word length is not a positive integer or if word length is longer than the sequence.
Methods code
newdescriptionprevnextTop
sub new {
    my($class,@args) = @_;
    # our new standard way of instantiation
my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@args); my ($seqobj) = $self->_rearrange([qw(SEQ)],@args); if((! defined($seqobj)) && @args && ref($args[0])) { # parameter not passed as named parameter?
$seqobj = $args[0]; } if(! $seqobj->isa("Bio::PrimarySeqI")) { $self->throw(ref($self) . " works only on PrimarySeqI objects\n"); } $self->{'_seqref'} = $seqobj; return $self;
}
count_wordsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub count_words {
    my ($self,$seqobj,$word_length) = @_;

    # check how we were called, and if necessary rearrange arguments
if(ref($seqobj)) { # call as SeqWords->count_words($seq, $wordlen)
if(! $seqobj->isa("Bio::PrimarySeqI")) { $self->throw("SeqWords works only on PrimarySeqI objects\n"); } } else { # call as $obj->count_words($wordlen)
$word_length = $seqobj; $seqobj = undef; } if(! defined($seqobj)){ $seqobj = $self->{'_seqref'}; } if($word_length eq "" || $word_length =~ /[a-z]/i){ $self->throw("SeqWords cannot accept non-numeric characters". " or a null value in the\$ word_length variable\n"); }elsif ($word_length <1 || ($word_length - int($word_length)) >0){ $self->throw("SeqWords requires the word length to be a ". "positive integer\n"); } my $seqstring = uc $seqobj->seq(); if($word_length > length($seqstring)){ $self->throw("die in _count,\$ word_length is bigger ". "than sequence length\n"); } my $type = "non-overlap"; my $words = _count($seqobj, $word_length, $type); return $words; # ref. to a hash
}
count_overlap_wordsdescriptionprevnextTop
sub count_overlap_words {
    my ($self,$seqobj,$word_length) = @_;
 # check how we were called, and if necessary rearrange arguments
if(ref($seqobj)){ # call as SeqWords->count_words($seq, $wordlen)
if(! $seqobj->isa("Bio::PrimarySeqI")){ $self->throw("SeqWords works only on PrimarySeqI objects\n"); } }else{ # call as $obj->count_words($wordlen)
$word_length = $seqobj; $seqobj = undef; } if(! defined($seqobj)) { $seqobj = $self->{'_seqref'}; } my $seqstring = uc $seqobj->seq(); if($word_length > length($seqstring)){ $self->throw("die in _count,\$ word_length is bigger ". "than sequence length\n"); } my $type = "overlap"; my $words = _count($seqobj, $word_length, $type); return $words; # ref. to a hash
} # the actual counting routine
# used by both count_words and count_overlap_words
}
_countdescriptionprevnextTop
sub _count {
    my ($seqobj, $word_length, $type) = @_;
    my %codon = ();

    # now the real business
# JS - remove DNA assumption
my $seqstring = uc $seqobj->seq(); if($type eq "non-overlap") { while($seqstring =~ /((\w){$word_length})/gim){ $codon{uc($1)}++; } } elsif($type eq "overlap"){ my $seqlen = $seqobj->length(); # measure length
for (my $frame = 1; $frame <= $word_length; $frame++) { # run through frames
my $seqstring = uc($seqobj->subseq($frame,$seqlen)); # take the relevant substring
while($seqstring =~ /((\w){$word_length})/gim){ $codon{uc($1)}++; # keep adding to hash
} } } else { Bio::Root::Root->throw("\nSomething badly wrong here.\$ type: $type can only be overlap or non-overlap"); } return\% codon; } 1;
}
General documentation
FEEDBACKTop
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User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other
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Support Top
Please direct usage questions or support issues to the mailing list:
bioperl-l@bioperl.org
rather than to the module maintainer directly. Many experienced and
reponsive experts will be able look at the problem and quickly
address it. Please include a thorough description of the problem
with code and data examples if at all possible.
Reporting BugsTop
Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track
the bugs and their resolution. Bug reports can be submitted via the
web:
  https://redmine.open-bio.org/projects/bioperl/
AUTHORTop
Derek Gatherer, in the loosest sense of the word 'author'. The
general shape of the module is lifted directly from the SeqStat module
of Peter Schattner. The central subroutine to count the words is
adapted from original code provided by Dave Shivak, in response to a
query on the bioperl mailing list. At least 2 other people provided
alternative means (equally good but not used in the end) of performing
the same calculation. Thanks to all for your assistance.
CONTRIBUTORSTop
Jason Stajich, jason-at-bioperl.org
APPENDIXTop
The rest of the documentation details each of the object methods.
Internal methods are usually preceded with a _